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COSMOPOLITE. A citizen of the world; one who has no fixed. residence. Vide Citizen.

COSTS, practice. The expenses of a suit or action which may be recovered by law from the losing party.

2. At common law, neither the plaintiff nor the defendant could recover costs eonomine; but in all actions in which damages were recoverable, the plaintiff, in effect, recovered his costs when he obtained a verdict, for the jury always computed them in the damages. When the defendant obtained a verdict, or the plaintiff became non-suit, the former was wholly without remedy for any expenses he had incurred. It is true, the plaintiff was amerced pro falso clamore suo, but the amercement was given to the king. Hull on Costs, 2 2 Arch. Pr. 281.

3. This defect was afterwards corrected by the statute of Gloucester, 6 Ed. I, c. 1, by which it is enacted that "the demandant in assise of novel disseisin, in writs of mort d'ancestor, cosinage, aiel and be sail, shall have damages. And the demandant shall have the costs of the writ purchased, together with damages, and this act shall hold place in all cases where the parly recovers damages, and every person shall render damages where land is recovered against him upon his own intrusion, or his own act." About forty-six years after the passing of this statute, costs were for the first time allowed in France, by an ordinance of Charles le Bel, (January, 1324.) See Hardw. Cas. 356; 2 Inst. 283, 288 2 Loisel, Coutumes, 328-9.

4. The statute of Gloucester has been adopted, substantially, in all the United States. Though it speaks of the costs of the writ only, it bas, by construction, been extended to the costs of the suit generally. The costs which are recovered under it are such as shall be allowed by the master or prothonotary upon taxation, and not those expenses which the. plaintiff may have. incurred for himself, or the extraordinary fees he may have paid counsel, or for the loss of his time. 2 Sell. Pr. 429.

5. Costs are single, when the party receives the same amount he has expended, to be ascertained by taxation; double, vide Double costs. and treble, vide Treble costs. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Hullock on Costs; Sayer's Law of Costs; Tidd's Pr. c. 40; 2 Sell. Pr. c. 19; Archb. Pr. Index, h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.; 6 Vin. Ab. 321; Grah. Pr. c. 23 Chit. Pr. h. t. 1 Salk. 207 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 109; Amer. Dig. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Harr. Dig. h. t. As to the liability of executors and administrators for costs, see 1, Chit. R. 628, note; 18 E. C. L. R. 185; 2 Bay's R. 166, 399; 1 Wash. R. 138; 2 Hen. & Munf. 361, 369; 4 John. R. 190; 8 John. R. 389; 2 John. Ca. 209. As to costs in actions qui tam, see Esp. on Pen. Act. 154 to 165.

COTTAGE, estates. A small dwelling house. See 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 216; Sheph. Touchst. 94; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1571, note.

2. The grant of a cottage, it is said, passes a small dwelling-house, which has no land belonging to it. Shep. To. 94.

COUCHANT. Lying down. Animals are said to have been levant and couchant, when they have been upon another person's land, damage feasant, one night at least. 3 Bl. Com. 9.

COUNCIL, legislation. This word signifies an assembly.

2. It was used among the Romans to express the meeting of only a part of the people, and that the most respectable, in opposition to the assemblies of the whole people.

3. It is now usually applied to the legislative bodies of cities and boroughs.

4. In some states, as in Massacbusetts, a body of men called the council, are elected, whose duties are to advise the governor in the executive part of the government. Const. of Mass. part 2, c. 2, s. 3, art. 1 and 2. See 14 Mass. 470; 3 Pick. 517; 4 Pick. 25 19 John. R. 58. In England, the king's council are the king's judges of his courts of justice. 3 Inst. 125; 1 Bl. Com. 229.

COUNSEL. Advice given to another as to what he ought to do or not to do.

2. To counsel another to do an unlawful act, is to become accessory to it, if it be a felony, or principal, if it be treason, or a misdemeanor. By the term counsel is also understood counsellor at law. Vide To open; Opening.

COUNSEL, an officer of court. One who undertakes to conduct suits and actions in court. The same as counsellor.

COUNSEL, practice, crim. law. In the oath of the grand jurors, there is a provision requiring them to keep secret " the commonwealth's counsel, their fellows, and their own." In this sense this word is synonymous with knowledge; therefore, all the knowledge acquired by grand jurors, in consequence of their office, either from the officers of the commonwealth, from their fellow-jurors, or which they have obtained in any manner, in relation to cases which come officially before them, must be kept secret. See Grand Jury.

COUNSELLOR, government. A counsellor is a member of a council. In some of the states the executive power is vested in a governor, or a governor and lieutenant governor, and council. The members of such council are called counsellors. See the names of the several states.

COUNSELLOR AT LAW, offices. An officer in the supreme court of the United States, and in some other courts, who is employed by a party in a cause, to conduct the same on its trial on his behalf. He differs from an attorney at law. (q. v.)

2. In the supreme court of the United States, the two degrees of attorney and counsel are kept separate, and no person is permitted to practise both. It is the duty of the counsel to draft or review and correct the special pleadings, to manage the cause on trial, and, during the whole course of the suit, to apply established principles of law to the exigencies of the case. 1 Kent, Com. 307.

3. Generally in the other courts of the United States, as well as in the courts of Pennsylvania, the same person perform's the duty of counsellor and attorney at law.

4. In giving their advice to their clients, counsel and others, professional men have duties to perform to their clients, to the public, and to themselves. In such cases they have thrown upon them something which they owe to the fair administration of justice, as well as to the private interests of their employers. The interests propounded for them ought, in their own apprehension, to be just, or at least fairly disputable; and when such interests are propounded, they ought not to be pursued per fas et nefas . Hag. R. 22.

5. A counsellor is not a hired person, but a mandatory; he does not render his services for a price, but an honorarium, which may in some degree recompense his care, is his reward. Doubtless, he is not indifferent to this remuneration, but nobler motives influence his conduct. Follow him in his study when he examines his cause, and in court on the trial; see him identify himself with the idea of his client, and observe the excitement he feels on his account; proud when he is, conqueror, discouraged, sorrowful, if vanquished; see his whole soul devoted to the cause he has undertaken, and which he believes to be just, then you perceive the elevated man, ennobled by the spirit of his profession, full of sympathy for his cause and his client. He may receive a reward for his services, but such things cannot be paid for with money. No treasures can purcbase the sympathy and devotedness of a noble mind to benefit humanity; these things are given, not sold. See Honorarium. 6. Ridley says, that the law has appointed no stipend to philosophers and lawyers not because they are not reverend services and worthy of reward or stipend, but because either of them are most honorable professions, whose worthiness is not to be valued or dishonored by money. Yet, in these cases many things are honestly taken, whi ch are not bonestly asked, and the judge may, according to the quality of the cause, and the still of the advocate, and the custom of the court, and, the worth of the matter that is in hand, appoint them a fee answerable to their place. View of the Civil and Eccles. Law, 38, 39.

COUNT, pleading. This word, derived from the French conte, a narrative, is in our old law books used synonymously with declaration but practice has introduced the following distinction: when the plaintiff's complaint embraces only a single cause of action, and he makes only one statement of it, that statement is called, indifferently, a declaration or count; though the former is the more usual term.

2. But when the suit embraces two or more causes of action, (each of which of course requires a different statement;) or when the plaintiff makes two or more different statements of one and the same cause of action, each several statement is called a count, and all of them, collectively, constitute the declaration.

3. In all cases, however, in which there are two or more counts, whether there is actually but one cause of action or several, each count purports, upon the face of it, to disclose a distinct right of action, unconnected with that stated in any of the other counts.

4. One object proposed, in inserting two or more counts in one declaration, when there is in fact but one cause of action, is, in some cases, to guard against the danger of an insufficient statement of the cause, where a doubt exists as to the legal sufficiency of one or another of two different modes of declaring; but the more usual end proposed in inserting more than one count in such case, is to accommodate the statement to the cause, as far as may be, to the possible state of the proof to be exhibited on trial; or to guard, if possible, against the hazard of the proofs varying materially from the statement of the cause of action; so that if one or more or several counts be not adapted to the evidence, some other of them may be so. Gould on Pl. c. 4, s. 2, 3, 4; Steph. Pl. 279; Doct. Pl. 1 78; 8 Com. Dig. 291; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. In real actions, the declaration is most usually called a count. Steph. Pl. 36, See Common count; Money count.

COUNTER, Eng. law. The name of an ancient prison in the city of London, which has now been demolished.

COUNTER AFFIDAVIT. An affidavit made in opposition to one already made; this is allowed in the preliminary examination of some cases.

COUNTER SECURITY. Security given to one who has become security for another, the condition of which is, that if the one who first became surety shall be damnified, the one who gives the counter security will indemnity him.

TO COUNTERFEIT, criminal law. To make something false, in the semblance of that which is true; it always implies a fraudulent intent. Vide Vin. Ab. h. t. Forgery.

COUNTERMAND. This word signifies a. change or recall of orders previously given.

2. It may be express or implied. Express, when contrary orders are given and a revocation. of the former order is made. Implied, when a new order is given which is inconsistent with the former order: as, if a man should order a merchant to ship him in a particular vessel -certain goods which belonged to him, and then, before the goods were shipped, he directed him to ship them in another vessel; this would be a countermand of the first order.

3. While the first command is unrecalled, the person who gave it would be liable to all the consequences in case he should be obeyed; but if, for example, a man should command another to commit a crime and, before its perpetration, he should repent and countermand it, he would not be liable for the consequences if the crime should afterwards be committed.

4. When a command or order has been given, and property delivered, by which a right vests in a third person, the party giving the order cannot countermand it; for example, if a debtor should deliver to A a sum of money to be paid to B, his creditor, B has a vested right in the money, and unless he abandon that right, and refuse to take the money, the debtor cannot recover it from A. 1 Roll. Ab. 32, pl. 13; Yelv. 164 Sty. 296. See 3 Co. 26 b.; 2 Vent. 298 10 Mod. 432; Vin. Ab. Countermand, A 1; Vin. Ab. Bailment, D; 9 East, 49; Roll. Ab. 606; Bac. Ab. Bailment, D; Com. Dig. Attorney, B 9, c. 8; Dane's Ab. h. t.; and Command.

COUNTERPART, contracts. Formerly each party to an indenture executed a separate deed; that part which was executed by the grantor was called the original, and the rest the counterparts. It is now usual for all the parties to execute every part, and this makes them all originals. 2 Bl. Com. 296.

2. In granting lots subject to a ground rent reserved to the grantor, both parties execute the deeds, of which there are two copies; although both are original, one of them is sometimes called the counterpart. Vide 12 Vin. Ab. 104; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 7 Com. Dig. 443; Merl. Repert. mots Double Ecrit.

COUNTERPLEA, pleading. When a tenant in any real action, tenant by the curtesy, or tenant in dower, in his answer and plea, vouches any one to warrant his title, or prays in aid another who has a larger estate, as of the remainder-man or reversioner or when a stranger to the action comes and prays to be received to save his estate; then that which the defendant alleges against it, why it should not be admitted, is called a counterplea. T. de la Ley; Doct. Placit. 300 Com. Dig. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

COUNTERS, English law. - Formerly there were in London two prisons belonging to the sheriffs courts, which bore this name. They are now demolished. 4 Inst. 248.

COUNTERSIGN. To countersign is to sign on the opposite side of an instrument already signed by some other person or officer, in order to secure its character of a genuine paper; as a bank note is signed by the president and countersigned by the cashier.

COUNTRY. By country is meant the state of which one is a member.

2. Every man's country is in general the state in which he happens to have been born, though there are some exceptions. See Domicil; Inhabitant. But a man has the natural right to expatriate himself, i. e. to abandon his country, or his right of citizenship acquired by means of naturalization in any country in which he may have taken up his residence. See Allegiance; Citizen; Expatriation. in another sense, country is the same as pais. (q. v.)

COUNTY. A district into which a state is divided.

2. The United States are generally divided into counties; counties are divided into townships or towns.

3. In Pennsylvania the division of the province into three Counties, viz. Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, was one of the earliest acts of William Penn, the original proprietary. There is no printed record of this division, or of the original boundaries of these counties. Proud says it was made about the year 1682. Proud's Hist. vol. 1) p. 234 vol. 2, p. 258.

4. In some states, as Illinois; 1 Breese, R. 115; a county is considered as a corporation, in others it is only a quasi corporation. 16 Mass. R. 87; 2 Mass. R. 644 7 Mass. R. 461; 1 Greenl. R. 125; 3 Greenl. R. 131; 9 Greenl. R. 88; 8 John. R. 385; 3 Munf. R. 102. Frequent difficulties arise on the division of a county. On this subject, see 16 Mass. R. 86 6 J. J. Marsh. 147; 4 Halst. R. 357; 5 Watts, R. 87 1 Cowen, R. 550; 6 Cowen, R. 642; Cowen, R. 640; 4 Yeates, R. 399 10 Mass. Rep. 290; 11 Mass. Rep. 339.

5. In the English law this word signifies the same as shire, county being derived from the French and shire from the Saxon. Both these words signify a circuit or portion of the realm, into which the whole land is divided, for the better government thereof, and the more easy administration of justice. There is no part of England that is not within some county, and the shire-reve, (sheriff) originally a yearly officer, was the governor of the county. Four of the counties of England, viz. Lancaster, Chester, Durham and Ely, were called counties Palatine, which were jurisdictions of a peculiar nature, and held by, especial charter from the king. See stat. 27 H. VIII. c.25.

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. Certain officers generally entrusted with the superintendence of the collection of the county taxes, and the disbursements made. for the county. They are administrative officers, invested by the local laws with various powers.

2. In Pennsylvania the office of county commissioner originated in the act of 1717, which was modified by the act of 1721, and afterwards enlarged by the act of 1724. Before the office of county commissioner was established, assessors were elected who performed-similar duties. See Act of 1700, 4 Votes of Assembly, 205, 209.

COUPONS. Those parts of a commercial instrument which are. to be cut, and which are evidence of something connected with the contract mentioned in-the instrument. They are generally attached to certificates of loan, where the interest is payable at particular periods, and, when the interest is paid, they are cut off and delivered to the payor.

COURIER. One who is sent on some public occasion as an express, to bear despatches, letters, and other papers.

2. Couriers sent. by an ambassador or other public minister, are protected from arrest or molestation. Vattel, liv. 4, c. 9, 123.

COURSE. The direction in which a line runs in surveying.

2. When there are no monuments, (q. v.) the land must be bounded by the courses and distances mentioned in the patent or deed. 4 Wheat. 444; 3 Pet. 96; 3 Murph. 82; 2 Har. & John. 267; 5 Har. & John. 254. When the lines are actually marked, they must be adhered to, though they vary from the course mentioned in the deeds. 2 Overt. 304; 7 Wheat. 7. 1 See 3 Call, 239 7 Mont. 333. Vide Boundary; Line.

COURSE OF TRADE. What is usually done in the management of trade or business.

2. Men are presumed to act for their own interest, and to pursue the way usually adopted by men generally; hence it is presumed in law, that men in their actions will pursue the usual course of trade. For this reason it is presumed that a bank note was signed before it was issued, though the signature be torn off. 2 Rob. Lo. R. 112. That one having possession of a bill of exchange upon him, has paid it; that one who pays an order or draft upon him, pays out of the funds of the drawer in his hands. But the case is different where the order is for the delivery of goods, they being presumed to have been sold by the drawee to the drawer. 9 Wend. 323; 1 Greenl. Ev. 38.

COURSE OF THE VOYAGE. By this term is understood the regular and customary track, if such there be, which a ship takes in going from one port to another, and the shortest way. Marsh. on Ins. 185.

COURT, practice. A court is an incorporeal political being, which requires for its existence, the presence of the judges, or a competent number of them, and a clerk or prothonotary, at the time during which, and at the place where it is by law authorized to be held; and the performance of some public act, indicative of a design to perform the functions of a court.

2. In another sense, the judges, clerk, or prothonotary, counsellors and ministerial officers, are said to constitute the court.

3. According to Lord, Coke, a court is a place where justice is judicially administered. Co. Litt. 58, a.

4. The judges, when duly convened, are also called the court. Vide 6 Vin. Ab. 484; Wheat . Dig. 127; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 3 Com. Dig. 300; 8 Id. 386; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

5. It sometimes happens that the judges composing a court are equally divided on questions discussed before them. It has been decided, that when such is the case on an appeal or writ of error, the judgment or decree is affirmed. 10 Wheat. 66; 11 Id. 59. If it occurs on a motion in arrest of judgment, a judgment is to be entered on the verdict. 2 Dall. Rep. 388. If on a motion for a new trial, the motion is rejected. 6 Wheat. 542. If on a motion to enter judgment on a verdict, the judgment is entered. 6 Binn. 100. In England, if the house of lords be equally divided on a writ of error, the judgment of the court below is affirmed. 1 Arch. Pr. 235. So in Cam. Scacc. 1 Arch. Pr. 240. But in error coram nobis, no judgment can be given if the judges are equally divided, except by consent. 1 Arch. Pr. 246. When the judges are equally divided on the admission of testimony, it cannot be received. But see 3 Yeates, 171. Also, 2 Bin. 173; 3 Bin. 113 4 Bin. 157; 1 Johns. Rep. 118 4 Wash. C. C. Rep. 332, 3. See Division of Opinion.

6. Courts are of various kinds. When considered as to their powers, they are of record and not of record; Bac. Ab. Courts, D; when compared. to each other, they are supreme, superior, and inferior, Id.; when examined as to their original jurisdiction, they are civil or criminal; when viewed as to their territorial jurisdiction, they are central or local; when divided as to their object, they are courts of law, courts of equity, courts martial, admiralty courts, and ecclesiastical courts. They are also courts of original jurisdiction, courts of error, and courts of appeal. Vide Open Court.

7. Courts of record cannot be deprived of their jurisdiction except by express negative words. 9 Serg. & R. 298; 3 Yeates, 479 2 Burr. 1042 1 Wm. Bl. Rep. 285. And such a court is the court of common pleas in Pennsylvania. 6 Serg. & R. 246.

8. Courts of equity are not, in general, courts of record. Their decrees touch the person, not lands. or goods. 3 Caines, 36. Yet, as to personalty, their decrees are equal to a judgment; 2. Madd. Chan. 355; 2 Salk., 507; 1 Ver. 214; 3 Caines, 35; and have preference according to priority. 3 P. Wms. 401 n.; Cas. Temp. Talb. 217; 4 Bro. P. C. 287; 4 Johns. Chan. Cas. 638. They are also conclusive between the parties. 6 Wheat. 109. Assumpsit will lie on a decree of a foreign court of chancery for a sum certain; 1 Campb. Rep. 253, per Lord Kenyon; but not for a sum not ascertained. 3 Caines, 37, (n.) In Pennsylvania, an action at law will lie on a decree of a court of chancery, but the pleas nil debet and nultiel record cannot be pleaded in such an action. 9 Serg. & R. 258.

COURT CHRISTIAN. An ecclesiastical judicature, known in England, so called from its handling matters of an ecclesiastical or religious nature. 2 Inst. 488. Formerly the jurisdiction of these courts was not thus Iimited. The emperor Theodosius promulgated a law that all suits (lites) and forensic controversies should be remitted to the judgment of the church, if either of the litigating parties should require it. Fr. Duaren De Sac. Minist. Eccl. lib. 1, c. 2. This law was renewed and confirmed by Charlemagne.

COURT OF ARCHES , eccl. law. The most ancient consistory court belonging to the archbishop of Canterbury for the trial of spiritual causes. It is so called, because it was anciently held in the church of Saint Mary le bow; which church had that appellation from its steeple, which was raised at the top with stone pillars, in the manner of an arch or bow. Termes de la Ley.

COURT OF ADMIRALTY. A court having jurisdiction of all maritime causes. Vide Admiralty; Courts of the United States; Instance Courts; Prize Court; 2 Chit. Pr. 508 to 538.

COURT OF AUDIENCE, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court kept by the archbishop in his palace, in which are transacted matters of form only; as confirmation of bishops, elections, consecrations, and the like.

COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. The name of an English court which was established on the breaking up of the aula regis, for the determination of pleas merely civil. It was at first ambulatory, but was afterwards located. This jurisdiction is founded on original write issuing out of chancery, in the cases of common persons. But when an attorney or person belonging to the court, is plaintiff, he sues by writs, of privilege, and is sued by bill, which is in the nature of a petition; both which originate in the common pleas. See Bench; Banc.

2. There are courts in most of the states of the United States which bear the name of common pleas; they have various powers and jurisdictions.

COURT OF CONSCIENCE, Eng. law. The name of a court in London. It has equity jurisdiction in certain cases. The reader is referred to Bac. Ab. Courts in London, 2.

COURT OF CONVOCATION, eccles. law. The name of an English ecclesiastical court. It is composed of every bishop, dean, and archdeacon, a proctor for the chapter, and two proctors for the clergy of each diocese in the province of Canterbury, for the province of York, there are two proctors for each archdeaconry.

2. This assembly meets at the time appointed in the king's writ, and constitute an ecclesiastical parliament. The archbishop and his suffragans, as his peers, are sitting together, and composing one house, called the upper house of convocation the deans, archdeacons, and a proctor for the chapter, and two proctors for the clergy, the lower house. In this house a prolocutor, performing the duty of a president, is elected.

8. The jurisdiction of this tribunal extends to matters of heresy, schisms, and other mere spiritual or ecclesiastical causes. Bac. Ab. Ecclesiastical Courts, A 1.

COURT OF EXCHEQUER, Eng. law. A court of record anciently established for the trial of all matters relating to the revenue of the crown. Bac. Ab. h. t.

COURT OF FACULTIES, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court which belongs to the archbishop, in which his officer, called magister ad facultates, grants dispensations to marry, to eat flesh on days prohibited, or to ordain a deacon under age, and the like. 4 Inst. 337.

COURT, INSTANCE. One of the branches of the English admiralty is called an instance court. Vide Instance Court.

COURT OF INQUIRY. A court constituted by authority of the articles of war, invested with the power to examine into the nature of any transaction, accusation, or imputation against any officer or soldier; the said court shall consist. of one or more officers, not exceeding three, and a judge advocate, or other suitable person, as a recorder, to reduce the proceedings and evidencee to writing, all of whom shall be sworn to the performance of their duty. Art. 91. Gord. Dig. Laws U. S., art. 3558 to 3560.

COURT OF KING'S BENCH. The name of the supreme court of law in England. Vide King's Bench.

COURT MARTIAL. A court authorized by the articles of war, for the trial of all offenders in the army or navy, for military offences. Article 64, directs that general courts martial may consist of any number of commissioned officers, from five to thirteen, inclusively; but they shall not consist of less than thirteen, where the number can be convened, without manifest injury to the service.

2. The decision of the commanding officer who appoints the court, as to the number that can be convened without injury to the service, is conclusive. 12 Wheat. R. 19. Such a court has not jurisdiction over a citizen of the United States not employed in military service 12 John. R. 257. It has merely a limited jurisdiction, and to render its jurisdiction valid, it must appear to have acted within such jurisdiction. 3 S. & R. 590 11 Pick. R. 442; 19 John. R. 7; 1 Rawle, R. 143.

3. A court martial must have jurisdiction over the subject matter of inquiry, and over the person for a want of these will render its judgment null, and the members of the court and the officers who execute its sentence, trespassers. 3 Cranch, 331. See 5 Wheat. 1; 12 Wheat. 19; 1 Brock. 324. Vide Gord. Dig. Laws U. S., art. 3331 to 3357; 2 Story,. L. U. S. 1000; and also the Treatises of Adye, Delafon, Hough, J. Kennedy, M. V. Kennedy, McArthur, McNaghten, Simmons and Tyler on Courts Martial; and 19 John. R, 7; 12 John. R. 257; 20 John. R. 343; 5 Wheat. R. 1; 1 U. S. Dig. tit. Courts, V.

COURT OF PECULIARS, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court, which is a branch of, and annexed to, the. court of arches.

2. It has jurisdiction over all those parishes dispersed through the province of Canterbury, in the midst of other dioceses. In the other peculiars, the jurisdiction is exercised by commissaries. 1 Phill. R. 202, n.

3. There are three sorts of peculiars 1. Royal peculiars. 3 Phill. R. 245. 2. The second sort are those in which the bishop has no concurrent jurisdiction, and are exempt from his visitation. 3. The third are subject to the bishop's visitation, and liable to his superintendence and jurisdiction. 3 Phill. R. 245; Skinn. R. 589.

COURT PREROGATIVE. Vide Prerogative Court.

COURT, PRIZE. One of the branches of the English admiralty, is called a prize court. Vide Prize Court.

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