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DOMINANT. estates. In the civil law, this term is used to signify the estate to which a servitude or easement is due from another estate; for example, where the owners of the estate, Blackacre, have a right of way or passage over the estate Whiteacre, the former is called the dominant, and the latter the servient estate. Bouv. Inst. n. 1600.

DOMINION. The right of the owner of a thing to use it or dispose of it at his pleasure. See Domain; 1 White's New Coll. 85; Jacob's Intr. 39.

DOMINIUM, empire, domain. It is of three kinds: 1, Directum dominium, or usufructuary dominion; dominium utile, as between landlord and tenenant; or, 2. It is to full property, and simple property. The former is such as belongs to the cultivator of his own estate; the other is the property of a tenant. 3. Dominion acquired by the law of nations, and dominion acquired by municipal law. By the law of nations, property may be acquired by occupation, by accession, by commixtion, by use or the pernancy of the usufruct, and by tradition or delivery. As to the dominium eminens, the right of the public, in cases of emergency, to seize upon the property of individuals, and convert it to public use, and the right of individuals, in similar cases, to commit a trespass on the persons and properties of others, see the opinion of chief justice McKean in Respublica v. Sparhawk, 1 Dallas, 362, and the case of Vanhorn v. Dorrance, 2 Dall. Rep. 304. See, further, as to dominium eminens, or the right of the community to take, at a fair price, the property of individuals for public use, the supplement of 1802 to the Pennsylvania compromising law, respecting the Wyoming controversy; also, Vattel, l. 1, c. 20, 244-248; Bynkershoek, lib. 2, c. 15; Rousseau's Social Compact, c. 9; Domat; l. 1, tit. 8, l, p. 381, fol. ed.; the case of a Jew, whom the grand seignior was compelled by the mufti to purchase out, cited in Lindsay et al. v. The Commissioners, 2 Bay. S. Car. Rep. 41. See Eminent domain.

DOMITAE. Subdued, tame,. not wild; as, animals domitae, which are tame or domestic animals.

DOMO REPARANDO. the name of an ancient writ in favor of a party who was in danger of being injured by the fall, of his neighbor's house.

DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA, contracts, legacies. A gift in prospect of death. When a person in sickness, apprehend ing his dissolution near, delivers, or causes to be delivered to another, the possession of any personal goods, to keep as his own, in case of the donor's decease. 2 Bl. Com. 514 see Civ. Code of Lou. art. 1455.

2. The civil law defines it to be a gift under apprehension of death; as, when any thing is given upon condition that if the donor dies, the donee shall possess it absolutely, or return it if the donor should survive, or should repent of having made the gift, or if the donee should die before the donor. 1 Miles' Rep. 109-117.

3. Donations mortis causa, are now reduced, as far as possible, to the similitude of legacies. Inst. t. 7, De Donationibus. See 2 Ves. jr. 119; Smith v. Casen, mentioned by the reporter at the end of Drury v. Smith, 1 P. Wms. 406; 2 Ves. sen. 434; 3 Binn. 866.

4. With respect to the nature of a donatio mortis causa, this kind of gift so far resembles a legacy, that it is ambulatory and incomplete during the donor's life; it is, therefore, revocable by him; 7 Taunt. 231; 3 Binn. 366 and subject to his debts upon a deficiency of assets. 1 P. Wms. 405. But in the following particulars it differs from a legacy: it does riot fall within an administration, nor require any act in the executors to perfect a title in the donee. Rop. Leg. 26.

5. The following circumstances are required to constitute a good donatio mortis causa. 1st. That the thing given be personal property; .3 Binn. 370 a bond; 3 Binn. 370; 3 Madd. R. 184; bank notes; 2 Bro. C. C. 612; and a check offered for payment during the life of the donor, will be so considered. 4 Bro. C. C. 286.

6. - 2d. That the gift be made by the donor in peril of death, and to take effect only in case the giver die. 3 Binn. 370 4 Burn's Ecc. Law, 110.

7. - 3d. That there be an actual delivery of the subject to, or for the donee, in cases where such delivery can be made. 3 Binn. 370; 2 Ves. jr. 120. See 9 Ves. 1 , 7 Taunt. 224. But such delivery can be made to a third person for the use of the donee. 3 Binn. 370:

8. It is an unsettled question whether such kind of gift appearing in writing, without delivery of the subject, can be supported. 2 Ves. jr. 120. By the Roman and civil law, a gift mortis causa might be made in writing. Dig. lib. 39, t. 6, 1. 28 2 Ves. sen. 440 1 Ves. sen. 314.

9. In Louisiana, no disposition mortis causa, otherwise than by last will and testament, is allowed. Civ. Code, art. 1563. See, in general, 1 Fonb. Tr. Eq. 288, n. (p); Coop. Just. 474, 492; Civ. Code of Lo. B. 3, 2, c. 1 and 6. Vin. Abr. Executors, Z 4; Bac. Abr. Legacies, A; Supp. to Ves. jr. vol. 1, p. 143, 170; vol. 2, 97. 215; Rop. Leg: oh. 1; Swinb. pt. 1, s. 7 1 Miles, 109. &c.

DONATION, contracts. The act by which the owner of a thing, voluntarily transfers the title and possession of the same, from himself to another person, without any consideration; a gift. (q. v.)

2. A donation is never perfected until it is has been accepted, for the acceptance (q. v.) is requisite to make the donation complete. Vide Assent, and Ayl. Pand. tit. 9 Clef des Lois Rom. h. t.

DONATION INTER Vivos, contracts. A contract which takes place by the mutual consent, of the giver, who divests himself of the thing given in order to transmit the title of it to the donee gratuitously, and the donee, who accepts the thing and acquires a legal title to it.

2. This donation takes place when the giver is not in any immediate apprehension of death, which distinguishes it from a donatio mortis causa. (q. v.) 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 712. And see Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1453 Justin. Inst. lib. 2, tit. 7, 2 Coop. Justin. notes 474-5 Johns. Dig. N. Y. Rep. tit. Gift.

DONEE. He to whom a gift is made, or a bequest given; one who is invested with a power to select an appointee, he is sometimes called an appointer. DONIS, STATUTE DE. The stat. West. 2, namely, 13 Edw. I. , c. 1, called the statute de donis conditionalibus. This statute revives, in some sort, the ancient feudal restraints, which were originally laid on alienations. 2 Bl. Com. 12.

DONOR. He who makes a gift. (q. v.)

DOOM. This word formerly signified a judgment. T. L.

DORMANT PARTNER. One who is a participant in the profits of a firm, but his name being concealed, his interest is not apparent. See Partners,

DOOR. The place of usual entrance in a house, or into a room in the house.

2. To authorize the breach of an outer door in order to serve process, the process must be of a criminal nature; and even then a demand of admittance must first have been refused. 5 Co. 93; 4 Leon. 41; T. Jones, 234; 1 N. H. Rep. 346; 10 John. 263; 1 Root, 83 , 134; 21 Pick. R. 156. The outer door may also be broken open for the purpose of executing a writ of habere facias. 5 Co. 93; Bac. Ab. Sheriff, N. 3.

3. An outer door cannot in general be broken for the purpose of serving civil process; 13 Mass. 520; but after the defendant has been arrested, and he takes refuge in his own house, the officer may justify breaking an outer door to take him. Foster, 320; 1 Roll. R. 138; Cro. Jac. 555.; 10 Wend. 300; 6 Hill, N. Y. Rep. 597. When once an officer is in the house, he may break open an inner door to make an arrest. Kirby, 386 5 John. 352; 17 John. 127, See 1 Toull. n. 214, p. 88.

DOT. This French word is adopted in Louisiana. It signifies the fortune, portion, or dowry, which a woman brings to her hushand by the marriage. 6 N. S. 460. See Dote; Dowry.

DOTAL PROPERTY. By the civil law, and in Louisiana, by this term is understood that property, which the wife brings to the hushand to assist him in bearing the expenses of the marriage establishment. Civil Code of Lo. art. 2315. Vide Extradotal property.

DOTATION, French law. The act by which the founder of a hospital, or other charity, endows it with property to fulfil its destination.

DOTE, Span. law. The property which the wife gives to the hushand on account of marriage.

2. It is divided into adventitia and profectitia; the former is the dote which the father or grandfather, or other of the ascendants in the direct paternal line, give of their own property to the hushand; the latter (adventitia) is that property which the wife gives to the hushand, or that which is given to him for her by her mother, or her collateral relations, or a stranger. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 1, t. 7, c . 1, i.

DOTE ASSIGNANDO, Eng. law. The name of a writ which lay in favor of a widow, when it was found by office that the king's tenant was seised of tenements in fee or fee tail at the time of his death, and that he held of the king in chief.

DOTE UNDE NIHIL HABET. The name of a writ of dower which a widow sues against the tenant, who bought land of her hushand in his lifetime, and in which her dower remains, of which he was seised solely in fee simple or fee tail. F. N. B. 147; Booth, Real Act. 166. See Dower unde nihil habet

DOUBLE. Twofold; as, double cost; double insurance; double plea.

DOUBLE COSTS practice. According to the English law, when double costs are given by the statute, the term is not to be understood, according to its literal import, twice the amount of single costs, but in such case the costs are thus calculated. 1. the common costs; and, 2. Half of the common costs. Bac. Ab. Costs, E; 2 Str. 1048. This is not the rule in New York, nor in Pennsylvania. 2 Dunl. Pr. 731; 2 Rawle's R. 201.

2. In all cases where double or treble costs are claimed, the party must apply to the court for them before he can proceed to the taxation, otherwise the proceeding will be set aside as irregular. 4 Wend. R. 216. Vide Costs; and Treble Costs.

DOUBLE ENTRY. A term used among merchants to signify that books of account are kept in such a manner that they present the debit and credit of every thing. The term is used in contradistinction to single entry.

2. Keeping books by double entry is more exact, because, presenting all the active and all the passive property of the merchant, in their respective divisions, there cannot be placed an article to, an account, which does not pass to some correspondent account elsewhere. It presents a perfect, view of each operation, and, from the relation and comparison of the divers accounts, which always keep pace with each other, their correctness is proved; for every commercial operation is necessarily composed of two interests, which are connected together. The basis of this mode of keeping books, and the only condition required, is to write down every transaction and nothing else; and to make no entry without putting it down to the two agents of the operation. By this means a merchant whose transactions are extensive, comprising a great number of subjects, is able to known not only the general situation of his affairs, but also the situation of each particular operation. For example, when a merchant receives money, his cash account becomes debtor, and the person who has paid it, or the merchandise sold, is credited with it; when he pays money, the cash account, is credited, And the merchandise bought, or the obligation paid, is debited with it. See Single entry.

DOUBLE INSURANCE, contracts. Where the insured makes, two insurances on the same risk, and the same interest. 12 Mass. 214. It differs from re-insurance in this, that it is made by the insured, with a view of receiving a double satisfaction in case of loss; whereas a re-insurance is made by a former insurer, his executors or assigns, to protect himself and his estate from a risk to which they were liable by the first insurance. The two policies are considered as making but one insurance. They are good to the extent of the value of the effects put in risk; but the insured shall not be permitted to recover a double satisfaction. He can sue the underwriters on both the policies, but he can only recover the real amount of his loss, to which all the underwriters on both shall contribute in proportion to their several subscriptions. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 4, s. 4; 5 S. & R. 473; 4 Dall. 348; 1 Yeates, 161; 9 S. & R. 103; 1 Wash . C. C. Rep. 419; 2 Wash. C. C. Rep. 186; 2 Mason, 476.

DOUBLE PLEA. The alleging, for one single purpose, two or more distinct grounds of defence, when one of them would be as effectual in law, as both or all. Vide Duplicity.

DOUBLE VOUCHER. A common recovery is sometimes suffered with double voucher, which occurs when the person first vouched to warranty, comes in and vouches over a third person. See a precedent, 2 Bl. Com. Appx. No. V. p. xvii.; also, Voucher.

2. The neecessity for double voucher arises when the tenant in tail is not the tenant in the writ, but is tenant by warranty; that is, where he is vouched, and comes in and confesses the warranty. Generally speaking, to accomplish this result, a previous conveyance is necessary, by the tenant in tail, to a third person, in order to make such third person tenant to a writ of entry. Preston on Convey. 125-6.

DOUBLE WASTE. When a tenant, bound to repair, suffers a house to be wasted, and then unlawfully fells timber to repair it, he is said to commit double waste. Co. Litt. 53. See Waste.

DOUBT. The uncertainty which exists in relation to a fact, a proposition, or other thing; or it is an equipoise of the mind arising from an equality of contrary reasons. Ayl. Pand. 121.

2. The embarrassing position of a judge is that of being in doubt, and it is frequently the lot of the wisest and most enlightened to be in this condition, those who have little or no experience usually find no difficulty in deciding the most, problematical questions.

3. Some rules, not always infallible, have been adopted in doubtful cases, in order to arrive at the truth. 1. In civil cases, the doubt ought to operate against him, who having it in his power to prove facts to remove the doubt, has neglected to do so. In cases of fraud when there is a doubt, the presumption of innocence (q. v.) ought to remove it. 2. In criminal cases, whenever a reasonable doubt exists as to the guilt of the accused that doubt ought to operate in his favor. In such cases, particularly, when the liberty, honor or life of an individual is at stake, the evidence to convict ought to be clear, and devoid of all reasonable doubt. See Best on Pres. 195; Wils. on Cir. Ev. 26; Theory of Presumptive Proof, 64; 33 How. St. Tr. 506; Burnett, Cr. Law of Scotl. 522; 1 Greenl. Ev. 1 D'Aguesseau, Oeuvres, vol. xiii. p. 242; Domat, liv. 3, tit. 6.

4. No judge is presumed to have any doubt on a question of law, and he cannot therefore refuse to give a judgment on that account. 9 M. R. 355; Merlin, Repert. h. t.; Ayliffe's Pand. b. 2, t. 17; Dig. lib. 34, t. 5; Code, lib. 6, t. 38. Indeed, in some countries; in China, for example, ignorance of the law in a judge is punishable with blows. Penal Laws of China, B. 2, s. 61.

DOVE. The name of a well known bird.

2. Doves are animals ferae naturae, and not the subject of larceny, unless they are in the owner's custody; as, for example, in a dove-house, or when in the nest before they can fly. 9 Pick. 15. See Whelp.

DOWAGER. A widow endowed; one who has a jointure.

2. In England, this is a title or addition given to the widows of princes, dukes, earls, and other noblemen.

DOWER. An estate for life, which the law gives the widow in the third part of the lands and tenements, or hereditaments of which the hushand, was solely seised, at any time during the coverture, of an estate in fee or in tail, in possession, and to which estate in the lands and tenements, the issue, if any, of such widow might, by possibility, have inherited. Watk. Prin. Con. 38; Litt. 36; 7 Greenl. 383. Vide Estate in Dower. This is dower at common law.

2. Besides this, in England there are three other species of dower now subsisting; namely, dower by custom, which is, where a widow becomes entitled to a certain portion of her hushand's lands in consequence of some local or particular custom, thus by the custom of gavelkind, the widow is entitled to a moiety of all the lands and tenements, which her hushand held by that tenure.

3. Dower ad ostium ecclesiae, is, when a man comes to the church door to be married, after troth plighted, endows his wife of a certain portion of his lands.

4. Dower ex assensu patris, was only a species of dower ad ostium ecclesice, made when the hushand's father was alive, and the son, with his consent expressly given, endowed his wife, at the church door, of a certain part of his father's lands.

5. There was another kind, de la plus belle, to which the abolition of military tenures has put an end. Vide Cruise's Dig. t. 6, c. 1; 2 Bl. Com. 129; 15 Serg. & Rawle, 72 Poth. Du Douaire.

6. Dower is barred in various ways; 1. By the adultery of the wife, unless it has been condoned. 2. By a jointure settled upon the wife. 2 Paige, R. 511. 3. By the wife joining her hushand in a conveyance of the estate. 4. By the hushand and wife levying a fine, or suffering a common recovery. 10 Co. 49, b Plowd. 504. 5. By a divorce a vinculo matrimonii. 6. By an acceptance, by the wife, of a collateral satisfaction, consisting of land, money, or other chattel interest, given instead of it by the hushand's will, and accepted after the hushand's death. In these cases she has a right to elect whether to take her dower or the bequest or devise. 4 Monr. R. 265; 5 Monr. R. 58; 4 Desaus. R. 146; 2 M'Cord, Ch. R. 280; 7 Cranch, R. 370; 5 Call, R. 481; 1 Edw. R. 435 3 Russ. R. 192; 2 Dana, R. 342.

7. In some of the United States, the estate which the wife takes in the lands of her deceased hushand, varies essentially from the right of dower at common law. In some of the states, she takes one-third of the profits, or in case of there being no children, one half. In others she takes the same right in fee, when there are no lineal descendants; and in one she takes two-thirds in fee, when there are no lineal ascendauts or descendants, or brother or sister of the whole or half blood. 1 Hill. Ab. 57, 8; see Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

DOWER UNDE NIHIL HABET. This is a writ of right in its nature. It lies only against the tenant of the freehold. 12 Mass. 415 2 Saund. 43, note 1; Hen. & Munf. 368 F. N. B. 148. It is a writ of entry, where the widow is deforced of the whole of her dower. Archb. Plead. 466, 7. A writ of right of dower lies for the whole or a part. 1 Rop. on Prop.430; Steph. on Pl. 10. n; Booth, R. A. 166; Glanv. lib. 4. c. 4, 5; 9 S. & R. 367. If the heir is fourteen years of age, the writ goes to him, if not, to his guardian. If the land be wholly aliened, it goes to the tenant, F. N. B. 7, or pernor of the profits, who may vouch the heir. If part only be aliened, the writ goes to the heir or guardian. The tenant cannot impart; 2 Saund. 44, n;. 1 Rop. on Prop. 430; the remedy being speedy. Fleta, lib. 5. o. 25, 8, p. 427. He pleads without defence. Rast. Ent. 232, b. lib. Int. fo. 15; Steph. Pl. 431 Booth, 118; Jackson on Pl. 819.

DOWRESS. A woman entitled to dower.

2. In order to entitle a woman to the rights of a dowress at common law, she must have been lawfully married, her hushand must be dead, he must have been seised, during the coverture, of an estate subject to dower. Although the marriage may be void able, if it is not absolutely void at his death, it is sufficient to support the rights of the dowress. The hushand and wife must have been of sufficient age to consent. 3. At common law an alien could not be endowed, but this rule has been changed in several states. 2 John. Cas. 29; 1 Harr. & Gill, 280.; 1 Cowen, R. 89; 8 Cowen, R. 713.

4. The dowress' right may be defeated when her hushand was not of right seised of an estate of inheritance; as, for example, dower will be defeated upon the restoration of the seisin under the prior title in the case of defeasible estates, as in case of reentry for a condition broken, which abolishes the intermediate seisin. Perk. s. 311, 312, 317.

DOWRY. Formerly applied to mean that which a woman brings to her hushand in marriage; this is now called a portion. This word is sometimes confounded with dower. Vide Co. Litt. 31; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2317; Dig. 23, 3, 76; Code, 5, 12, 20.

DRAGOMAN. An interpreter employed in the east, and particularly at the Turkish court.

2. The Act of Congress of August 26, 1842, c. 201, s. 8, declares that it shall not be lawful for the president of the United States to allow a dragoman at Constantinople, a salary of more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

DRAIN. Conveying the water from one place to another, for the purpose of drying the former

2. The right of draining water through another map's land. This is an easement or servitude acquired by grant or prescription. Vide 3 Kent, Com. 436 7 Mann. & Gr. 354; Jus aguaeductus; Rain water; Stillicidium.

DRAwhACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. For the various acts of congress which regulate drawhacks, see Story, L. U. S. Index, h. t.

DRAWEE. A person to whom a bill of exchange is addressed, and who is requested to pay the amount of money therein mentioned.

2. The drawee may be only one person, or there may be several persons. The drawee may be a third person, or a man may draw a bill on himself. 18 Ves. jr. 69; Carth. 509; 1 Show. 163; 3 Burr. 1077.

3. The drawee should accept or refuse to accept the bill at furthest within twenty-four hours after presentment. 2 Smith's R. 243; 1 Ld. Raym. 281 Com. Dig. Merchant, F 6; Marius, 15; but it is said the holder is entitled. to a definite answer if the mail go out in the meantime. Marius' 62. In case the bill has been left with the drawee for his acceptance, he will be considered as having accepted it, if he keep the bill a great length of time, or do any other act which gives credit to the bill, and induces the holder not to protest it; or is intended as a surprise upon him, and to induce him to consider the bill as accepted. Chit. on Bills, 227. When he accepts it, it is his duty to pay it at maturity.

DRAWER, contracts. The party who makes a bill of exchange.

2. The obligations of the drawer to the drawee and every subsequent holder lawfully entitled to the possession, are, that the person on whom he draws is capable of binding himself by his acceptance that he isto be found at the place where he is described to reside, if a description be given in the bill; that if the bill be duly presented to him, he will accept in writing on the bill itself, according to its tenor, and that he will pay it when it becomes due, if presented in proper time for that purpose; and that if the drawee fail to do either, he, the drawer, will pay the amount, provided he have due notice of the dishonor. 3. The engagement of the drawer of a bill is in all its parts absolute and irrevocable. 2 H. Bl. 378; 3 B. & P. 291; Poth. Contr. de Change, n. 58; Chit. Bills, 214, Dane's Ab. h. t.

 
 
 
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