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GEORGIA. The name of one of the original states of the United States of America. George the Second granted a charter to Lord Percival, and twenty others, for the government of the province of Georgia. It was governed under this charter till the year 1751, when it was surrendered to the crown. From that period to the time of the American revolution, the colony was governed as other royal provinces.

2. The constitution of the state, as revised, amended, and compiled by the convention of the state, was adopted at Louisville, on the 30th day of May, 1798. It directs, art. 1, s. 1, that the legislative, executive, and judiciary departments of government shall be distinct, and each department shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy.

3.-1. The legislative power is vested in two separate and distinct branches, to wit, a senate and house of representatives, styled the General Assembly." 1st. The senate is elected annually, and is composed of one member from each county, chosen by the electors thereof. The senate elect, by ballot, a president out of their own body. 2d. The house of representatives is composed of members from all the counties, according to their respective numbers of free white persons, and including three-fifths of all the people of color. The enumeration is made once in seven years, and any county containing three thousand persons, according to the foregoing plan of enumeration, is entitled to two members; seven thousand to three members; and twelve thousand to four members; but each county shall have at least one, and not more than four members. The representatives are chosen annually. The house of representatives choose their speaker and other officers.

4. - 2. The executive power is vested in a governor, elected by the general assembly, who holds his office for the term of two years. In case of vacancy in his office, the president of the senate acts as governor, until the disability is removed, or until the next meeting of the general assembly.

5. - 3. The judicial powers of the state are, by the 3d article of the constitution, distributed as follows:

1. The judicial powers of this state shall be vested in a superior court, and in such inferior jurisdictions as the legislature shall, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges of the superior courts shall be elected for the term of three years, removable by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of both houses for that purpose, or by impeachment and conviction thereon. The superior court shall have exclusive and final jurisdiction in all criminal cases which shall be tried in the county wherein the crime was committed; and in all cases respecting titles to land, which shall be tried in the county where the land lies; and shall have power to correct errors in inferior judicatories by writs of certiorari, as well as errors in the superior courts, and to order new trials on proper and legal grounds Provided, That such new trials shall be determined, and such errors corrected, in the superior court of the county in which such action originated. And the said court shall also have appellative jurisdiction in such other cases as the legislature may by law direct, which shall in no case tend to remove the cause from the county in which the action originated; and the judges thereof, in all cases of application for new trials, or correction of error, shall enter their opinions on the minutes of the court. The inferior courts shall have cognizance of all civil cases, which shall be tried in the county wherein the defendant resides, except in cases of joint obligors, residing in different counties, which may be commenced in either county; and a copy of the petition and process served on the party or parties residing out of the county in which the suit may be commenced, shall be deemed sufficient service, under such rules and regulations as the legislature may direct; but the legislature may, by law, to which two-thirds of each branch shall concur, give concurrent jurisdiction to the superior courts. The superior and inferior courts shall sit in each county twice in every year, at such stated times as the legislature shall appoint.

6. - 2. The judges shall have salaries adequate to their services, established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office; but shall not receive any other perquisites or emoluments whatever, from parties or others, on account of any duty required of them.

7. - 3. There shall be a state's attorney and solicitors appointed by the legislature, and commissioned by the governor, who shall hold their offices for the term of three years, unless removed by sentence on impeachment, or by the governor, on the address of each branch of the general assembly. They shall have salaries adequate to their services, established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office.

8. - 4. Justices of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the general assembly, and be commissioned by the governor, and shall hold their commissions during good behaviour, or as long a they respectively reside in the county for which they shall be appointed, unless revoved by sentence on impeachment, or by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the general assembly. They may be compensated for their services in such manner as the legislature may by law direct.

9. - 5. The justices of the peace shall be nominated by the inferior courts of the several counties, and commissioned by the governor; and there shall be two justices of the peace in each captain's district, either or both of whom shall have power to try all cases of a civil nature within their district, where the debt or litigated demand does not exceed thirty dollars, in such manner as the legislature may by law direct. They shall hold their appointments during good behaviour, or until they shall be removed by conviction, on indictment in the superior court, for malpractice in office, or for any felonious or infamous crime, or by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of each branch of the legislature.

10. - 6. The powers of a court of ordinary or register of probates, shall, be invested in the inferior courts of each county; from whose decision there may be an appeal to the superior court, under such restrictions and regulations as the general assembly may by law direct; but the inferior court shall have power to vest the care of the records, and other proceedings therein, in the clerk, or such other person as they may appoint; and any one or more justices of the said court, with such clerk or other person, may issue citations and grant temporary letters in time of vacation, to hold until the next meeting of the said court; and such clerk or other person may grant marriage licenses.

11. - 7. The judges of the superior courts, or any one of them, shall have power to issue writs of mandamus. prohibi tion, scire facias, and all other writ's which may be necessary for carrying their powers fully into effect.

GERMAN, relations, germanus. Whole or entire, as respects genealogy or descent; thus, "brother-german," denotes one who is brother both by the father and mother's side cousins-germane" those in the first and nearest degree, i. e., children of brothers or sisters. Tech. Dict.; 4 M. & C. 56.

GERONTOCOMI, civil law.. Officers appointed to manage hospitals for poor old persons. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Administrateurs.

GESTATION, med. jur. The time during which a female, who has conceived, carries the embryo or foetus in her uterus. By the common consent of mankind, the term of gestation is considered to be ten lunar months, or forty weeks, equal to nine calendar months and a week. This period has been adopted, because general observation, when it could be correctly made, has proved its correctness. Cyclop. of Pract. Med. vol. 4, p. 87, art. Succession of inheritance. But this may vary one, two, or three weeks. Co. Litt. 123 b, Harg. & Butler's, note 190*; Ryan's Med. Jurisp. 121; Coop. Med. Jur: 18; Civ. Code of Louis. art. 203-211; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 478. See Pregnancy.

GIFT, conveyancing. A voluntary conveyance; that is, a conveyance not founded on the consideration of money or blood. The word denotes rather the motive of the conveyance; so that a feoffment or grant may be called a gift when gratuitous. A gift is of the same nature as a settlement; neither denotes a form of assurance, but the nature of the transaction. Watk. Prin. 199, by Preston. The operative words of this conveyance are do or dedi. The maker of this instrument is called the donor, and he to whom it is made, the donee. 2 B. Com. 316 Litt. 69; Touchs. ch. 11.

GIFT, contracts. The act by which the owner of a thing, voluntarily transfers the title and possession of the same, from himself to another person who accepts it, without any consideration. It differs from a grant, sale, or barter in this, that in each of these cases there must be a consideration, and a gift, as the definitionstates, must be without consideration.

2. The manner of making the gift may be in writing, or verbally, and, as far as personal chattels are concerned, they are equally binding. Perk. 57; 2 Bl. Com. 441. But real estate must be transferred by deed.

3. There must be a transfer made with an intention of passing the title, and delivering the possession of the thing given, and it must be accepted by the donee. 1 Madd. Ch. R. 176, Am. ed. p. 104; sed vide 2 Barn. & Ald. 551; Noy's Rep. 67.

4. The transfer must be without consideration, for if there be the least consideration, it will change the contract into a sale or barter, if possession be delivered; or if not, into an executory contract. 2 Bl. Com. 440.

5. Gifts are divided into gifts inter vivos, and gifts causa mortis; and also' into simple or proper gifts; that is, such as are to take immediate effect, without any condition; and qualified or improper gifts, or such as derive their force upon the happening, of some condition or contingency; as, for example, a donatio causa mortis. Vide Donatio causa mortis; Gifts inter vivos; and Vin. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Biens, D 2, and Grant; Bac. Ab. Grant; 14 Vin. Ab. 19 3 M. & S. 7 5 Taunt. 212 1 Miles, R. 109.

GIFT INTER Vivos. A gift made from one or more persons, without any prospect of immediate death, to one or more others.

2. These gifts are so called to distinguish them from gifts causa-mortis, (vide Donatio causa mortise,) from which they differ essentially. 1. A gift inter vivos, when completed by delivery, passes the title to the thing so that it cannot be recovered back by the giver; the gift causa mortis is always given upon the implied condition that the giver may, at any time during his life, revoke it. 7 Taunt. 231; 3 Binn. 366. 2. A gift inter vivos may be made by the giver at any time; the donatio causa mortis must be made by the donor while in peril of death. In both cases there must be a delivery. 2 Kent's Com. 354; 1 Beav. R. 605; 1 Miles, R. 109.

GIFTOMAN, Swedish law. He who has a right to dispose of a woman in marriage.

2. This right is vested in the father, if living; if dead, in the mother. They may nominate a person in their place; but for want of such nomination, the brothers german; and for want of them, the consanguine brothers; and in default of the latter, uterine brothers have the right, but they are bound to consult the paternal or maternal grandfather. Swed- Code, tit. of Marriage.

GILL. A measure of capacity, equal to one-fourth of a pint. Vide Measure.

GIRANTEM, mer. law. An Italian word,, which signifies the drawer. It is derived from, girare, to draw, in the same manner as the English verb to murder, is transformed into murdrare in our old indictments. Hall, Mar. Loans, 183, n.

GIRTH., A girth or yard is a measure of length. The word is of Saxon origin, taken from the circumference of the human body. Girth is contracted from girdeth, and signifies as much as girdle. See Ell.

GIST, pleading. Gist of the action is the essential ground or object of it, in point of law, and without which there is no cause of action. Gould on Pl. c. 4, 12. But it is observable that the substance or gist of the action is not always the principal cause of the plaintiff Is complaint in point of fact, nor that on which he recovers all or the greatest part of his damages.

2. It frequently bappens that upon that part of his declaration which contains the substance or gist of the, action, he only recovers nominal damages, and he gets his principal satisfaction on account of matter altogether collateral thereto. A familiar instance of this is the case where a father sues the defendant for a trespass for the seduction of his daughter. The gist of the action is the trespass, and the loss of his daughter's services, but the collateral cause is the injury done to his feelings, for which the principal damages are given. In stating the substance or gist of the action, every thing must be averred which is necessary to be proved at the trial. Vide 1 Vin. Ab. 598; 2 Phil. Ev. 1, note. See Bac. Abr. Pleas, B; Doct. P. 85. See Damages, special, in pleading; 1 Vin. At. 598; 2 Phil. Ev. 1, n.

GIVER, contracts. He who makes a gift. (q. v.) By his gift, the giver always impliedly agrees with the donee that he will not revoke the gift.

GIVING IN PAYMENT. This term is used in Louisiana; it signifies that a debtor, instead of paying a debt he owes in money, satisfies his creditor by giving in payment a movable or immovable. Vide Dation en paiement.

GIVING TIME, contracts. Any agreement by which a creditor gives his debtor a delay or time in paying his debt, beyond that contained in the original agreement. When other persons are responsible to him, either as drawer, endorser, or surety, if such time be given without the consent of the latter, it discharges them from responsibility to him. 1 Gall. Rep. 32; 7 John. R. 332; 10 John. Rep. 180; Id. 587 Kirby, R. 397 3 Binn. R. 523; 2 John. Ch. R. 554; 3 Desaus. Ch. Rep. 604; 2 Desaus. Ch. R. 230, 389 2 Ves. jr. 504; 6 Ves. jr. 805 3 Atk. 91; 2 Bos. & Pull,. 62; 4 M. & S. 232; Bac. Ab. Obligations, D; 6. Dow. P. C. 238; 3 Meriv. R. 272; 5 Barn., & A. 187. Vide 1 Leigh's N . P. 31; 1 B. & P. 652; 2 B. & P. 61; 3 B. & P. 363; 8 East, R. 570; 3 Price, R. 521; 2 Campb. R. 178. 12 East,.R. 38; 5 Taunt. R. 319; S. C. 1 E. C. L. R. 119; Rosc. Civ. Ev. 171; 8 Watts, R. 448; 4 Penn. St. R. 73; 10 Paige, 76; and the article Forbearance.

2. But more delay in suing, without fraud or any agreement with the principal, is not such giving time as will discharge the surety. 1 Gallis. 32; 2 Pick. 581 3 Blackf. 93 7 John. 332. See Surety.

GLADIUS. In our old Latin authors, and in the Norman laws, this word was used to signify supreme jurisdiction, jus gladii.

GLEANING. The act of gathering such grain in a field where it grew, as may, have been left by the reapers after the sheaves were gathered.

2. There is a custom in England, it is said, by which the poor are allowed to enter and glean upon another's land after harvest without being guilty of a trespass. 3 Bl. Com. 212 . But it has been decided that the community are not entitled to claim this privilege as a right. 1 Hen. Bl. 51. In the United States, it is believed, no such right exists. This right seems to have existed in some parts of France. Merl. Rep. mot Glanage. As to whether gleaning would or would not amount to larceny, vide Woodf. Landl. & Ten. 242; 2 Russ. on Cr. 99. The Jewish law may be found in the 19th chapter of Leviticus, verses 9 and 10. See Ruth, ii. 2, 3; Isaiah, xvii. 6.

GLEBE, eccl. law. The land which belongs to a church. It is the dowry of the church. Gleba est terra qua consistit dos ecclesiae. Lind. 254; 9 Cranch, Rep. 329. In the civil law it signified the soil of an inheritance; there were serfs of the glebe, called gleboe addicti. Code, 11, 47, 7 et 21; Nov. 54, c. 1.

GLOSS. Interpretation, comment, explanation, or remark, intended to illustrate the text of an author.

GLOSSATOR. A commentator or annotator of the Roman law. One of the authors of the Gloss.

GLOUCESTER, STATUTE OF. An English statute, passed 6 Edw. I., A. D., 1278; so called, because it was passed at Gloucester. There were other statutes made at Gloucester, which do not bear this name. See stat. 2 Rich. II.

GO WITHOUT DAY. These words have a technical sense. When a party is dismissed the court, he is said to go without day; that is, there is no day appointed for him to appear again.

GOD. From the Saxon god, good. The source of all good; the supreme being. 1. Every man is presumed to believe in God, and he who opposes a witness on the ground of his unbelief is bound to prove it. 3 Bouv. Inst. u. 3180.

2. Blasphemy against the Almighty, by denying his being or providence, was an offence punishable at common law by fine and imprisonment, or other infamous corporal punishment. 4 Bl. Corn. 60; 1 East, P. C. 3; 1 Russ. on Crimes, 217. This offence his been enlarged in Pennsylvania, and perhaps most of the states, by statutory provision. Vide Christianity; Blasphemy; 11 Serg. & Rawle, 394.

3. By article 1, of amendments to the Constitution of the United States, it is provided that "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." In the United States, therefore, every one is allowed to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

GOD AND MY COUNTRY. When a prisoner is arraigned, he is asked, How will you be tried? he answers, "By God and my country." This practice arose when the prisoner had the right to choose the mode of trial, namely, by ordeal or by jury, and then he elected by God or by his country, that is, by jury. It is probable that originally it was "By God or my country" for the question asked supposes an option in the prisoner, and the answer is meant to assert his innocence by declining neither sort of trial. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 416; Barr. on the Stat. 73, note.

GOD B0TE, eccl. law. An ecclesiastical or church fine imposed upon an. offender for crimes and offences committed against God.

GOING WITNESS. One who is going out of the jurisdiction of the court, although only into a state or country under the general sovereignty; as, for example, if he is going from one to another of the United States; or, in Great Britain, from England to Scotland. 2 Dick. 454.

GOLD. A metal used in making money, or coin. It is pure when the metal is unmixed with any other. Standard gold, is gold mixed with some other metal, called alloy. Vide Money.

GOOD BEHAVIOUR. Conduct authorized by law. Surety of good behaviour may be demanded from any person who is justly suspected, upon sufficient grounds, of intending to commit a crime or misdemeanor. Surety. for good behaviour is somewhat similar to surety of the peace, but the recognizance is more easily forfeited, and it ought to be demanded with greater caution. 1 Binn. 98, n.; 2 Yeates, 437; 14 Vin. Ab. 21; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. As to what is a breach of good behaviour, see 2 Mart. N. S. 683; Hawk. b. 1, c. 61, s. 6 Chit. Pr. 676. Vide Surdy of the peace.

GOOD AND LAWFUL MEN, probi et legales homines. The law requires that those who serve on juries shall be good. and lawful men; by which is understood those qualified to serve on juries; that is, that they be of full age, citizens, not infamous nor non compos mentis, and they must be res ident in the county where the venue is laid. Bac. Ab. Juries, A; Cro. Eliz. 654; 3 Inst. 30; 2 Rolle's R. 82; Cam. & Norw. 38.

GOOD CONSIDERATION, contracts. A good consideration is one which flows from kindred or natural love and affection alone, and is not of a pecuniary.nature. Vin. Ab. Consideration, B; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 613. Vide Consideration.

GOOD WILL. By this term is meant the benefit which arises from the establishment of particular trades or occupations. Mr. Justice Story describes a good will to be the advantage of benefit which is acquired by an establishment, beyond the mere value of the capital, stocks, funds, or property employed therein, in consequence of the general public patronage and encouragement, which it receives from constant or habitual customers, on account of its local position, or common celebrity, or reputation for skill or affluence, or punctuality, or from other accidental circumstances or necessities, or even from ancient partialities, or prejudices. Story, Partn. 99; see 17 Ves. 336; 1 Hoffm. R. 68; 16 Am. Jur. 87.

2. As between partners, it has been held that the good will of a partnership trade survives; 6 Ves. 539; but this appears to be doubtful; 16 Ves. 227; and a distinction, in this respect, has been suggested between commercial and professional partnerships; the advantages of established connexions in the latter being held to survive, unless the benefit is excluded by positive stipulation. 3 Madd. 79. As to the sale, of the good-will of a trade or business, see. 3 Meriv. 452; 1 Jac. & Walk. 689; 2 Swanst. 332; 1 Ves. & Beames, 505; 17 Ves. 346; 2 Madd. 220; Gow on Partn. 428; Collyer on Partn. 172, note; 2 B. & Adolph. 341; 4 Id. 592, 596; 1 Rose, 123; 5 Russ. 29; 2 Watts, 111; 1 Chit. Pr. 868; 1 Sim. & Stu. 74; 2 Russ. R. 170; 1 Jac. & W. 380; 1 Russ. R. 376; 1 P. & W. 184; 2 Mad. R. 198; l T. R. 118. Vide 5 Bos. & Pull. 67; 1 Bro. C. C. 160, as to the effect of a bankrupt's assignment on a good-will; and 16 Amer. Jur. 87.

GOODS, property. For some purposes this term includes money, valuable securities, and other mere personal effects. The term. goods and chattels, includes not only personal property in possession, but also choses in action. 12 Co. 1; 1 Atk. 182. The term chattels is more comprehensive than that of goods, and will include all animate as well as inanimate property, and also a chattel real, as a lease for years of house or land. Co. Litt. 118; 1 Russ. Rep. 376. The word goods simply and without qualification, will pass the whole personal estate when used in a will, including even stocks in the funds. But in general it will be limited by the context of the will. Vide 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 289; 1 Chit. Pr. 89, 90; 1. Ves. jr. 63; Hamm. on Parties, 182; 3 Ves. 212; 1 Yeates, 101; 2 Dall. 142; Ayl. Pand. 296; Wesk. Ins. 260; 1 Rop. on Leg. 189; 1 Bro. C. C. 128; Sugd. Vend. 493, 497; and the articles Biens; Chattels; Furniture. 2. Goods are said to be of different kinds, as adventitious, such as are given or arise otherwise than by succession; dotal goods, or those which accrue from a dowry, or marriage portion; vacant goods, those which are abandoned or left at large.

GOODS SOLD AND DELIVERED. This phrase is frequently used in actions of assumpsit, and the sale and delivery of goods are the foundation of the action. When a plaintiff declares for goods sold and delivered, he is required to prove, first, the contract of sale; secondly, the delivery of the goods, or such disposition of them as will be equivalent to it; and, thirdly, their value. 11 . Shepl. 505. These will be separately considered.

2. - 1. The contract of sale may be express, as where the purchaser actually bought the goods on credit, and promised to pay for them at a future time; or implied, where from his acts the defendant manifested an intention to buy them; as, for example, when one takes goods by virtue of a sale made by a person who has no authority to sell, and the owner afterwards affirms the contract, he may maintain an action for goods sold and delivered. 12 Pick. 120. Again, ifthe goods come, to the hands of the defendant tortiously, and are converted by him to his own use, the plaintiff may waive the tort, and recover as for goods sold and delivered. 3 N. H. Rep. 384; 1 Miss. R. 430, 643; 3 Watts, 277; 5 Pick. 285; 4 Binn. 374; 2 Gill & John. 326; 3 Dana, 552; 5 Greenl. 323. 3. - 2. The delivery must be made in accordance with the terms of the sale, for if there has not been such delivery no action can be maintained. 2 Ired. R. 12; 15 Pick. 171; 3 John. 534.

4.- 3. The plaintiff must prove the value of the goods; where there is an express agreement as to their value, be established by evidence, but where there is no such express agreement, the value of the goods at the time of sale must be proved. Coxe, 261. And the purchaser of goods cannot defend, against an action for the purchase money, by showing that the property was of no value. 8 Port. 133.

5. To support an action for goods sold and delivered, it is indispensable that the goods should have been sold for money, and that the credit on which they were sold should have expired. But where the goods have been sold on a credit to be paid for by giving a note or bill, and the purchaser does not give it according to contract, although the seller cannot recover in assumpsit for goods sold and delivered till the credit has expired, yet he may proceed immediately for a breach of the agreement. 21 Wend. 175.

6. When goods have been sold to be paid for partly in money, and partly in goods to be delivered to the vendor, the plaintiff must declare specially, and he cannot recover on the common count for goods sold and delivered. 1 Chit. Pl. 339; 1 Leigh's N. P. 88; 1 H. Bl. 287; Holt, 179.

GOUT, med. jur. contracts. An inflammation of the fibrous and ligamentous parts of the joints.

2. In cases of insurance on lives, when there is warranty of health, it seems that a man subject to the gout, is a life capable of being, insured, if he has no sickness at the time to make it an unequal contract. 2 Park, Ins. 583.

 
 
 
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