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LOAN, contracts. The act by which a person lets another have a thing to be used by him gratuitously, and which is to be returned, either in specie or in kind, agreeably to the terms of the contract. The thing which is thus transferred is also called a loan. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1077.

2. A loan in general implies that a thing is lent without reward; but, in some cases, a loan may be for a reward; as, the loan of money. 7 Pet. R. 109.

3. In order to make a contract usurious, there must be a loan; Cowp. 112, 770; 1 Ves. jr. 527; 2 Bl. R. 859; 3 Wils. 390 and the borrower must be bound to return the money at all events. 2 Scho. & Lef. 470. The purchase of a bond or note is not a loan ; 3 Scho. & Lef. 469; 9 Pet. R 103; but if such a purchase be merely colorable, it will be considered as a loan. 2 John. Cas. 60; Id. 66; 12 S. & R. 46; 15 John. R. 44.

LOAN FOR CONSUMPTION, or, MUTUTUM. (q. v.) A contract by which the owner of a personal chattel, called the lender, delivers it to another, known as the borrower, by which it is agreed that the borrower shall consume the chattel loaned, and return at the time agreed upon, another chattel, of the same quality, kind, and number, to the lender, either gratuitously or for a con- sideration; as, if Peter lends to Paul one bushel of wheat, to be used by the latter, so that it shall not be returned to Peter, but instead of which Paul will return to Peter another bushel of wheat of the same kind and quality, at a time agreed upon.

2. It is evident that this contract differs essentially from a loan for use. In the latter, the property of the thing lent remains with the lender, and, if it be destroyed without the fault or negligence of the borrower, it is his loss, and the thing to be returned is the identical thing lent; but in the loan for consumption, the property passes to the borrower, and in case of its destruction, he must bear the loss, and the identical property is never to be returned, but other property of the like kind, quality, and number. This contract bears a nearer resemblance to a barter or exchange; in a loan for consumption the borrower agrees to exchange with the lender a bushel of wheat, which he has not, but expects to obtain, for another bushel of wheat which the lender now has, and with which he is willing to part; or a more familiar example may be given: Debtor borrows from Creditor, one hundred dollars to use as he shall deem best, and he promises to return to Creditor another hundred dollars at a future time.

3. In cases of loan for consumption, the lender may charge for the use of the thing loaned or not; as, if I lend one thousand dollars to a friend for a month, I may charge interest or not but a loan for use is always gratuitous when anything is charged for the use, it becomes a hiring. See Hire; and also Mutuum.

LOAN FOR USE, or COMMODATUM, contracts. A bailment, or loan of an article for a certain time, to be used by the borrower, without paying for it. 2 Kent's Com. 446, 447. Sir William Jones defines it to be a bailment of a thing for a certain time, to be used by the borrower, without paying for it. Jones' Bailm. 118. According to the Louisiana Code, art. 2864, it is an agreement by which a person delivers a thing to another, to use it according to its natural destination, or according to the agreement, under an obligation on the part of the borrower, to return it after he shall have done using it. This loan is essentially gratuitous. The Code Civil, art. 1875, defines it in nearly the same words. Lord Holt has defined this bailment to be, when goods or chattels, that are useful, are lent to a friend gratis, to be used by him: and it is called commodatum, he adds, because the thing is to be restored in specie. 2 Ld. Ray. 909, 913.

2. The loan for use resembles somewhat a gift, for the lender, as in a gift, gives something to the borrower; but it differs from the latter, because there the property of the thing given is transferred to the donee; instead of which, in the loan for use, the thing given is only the use, and the property in the thing lent remains in the lender. This contract has also some analogy to the mutuum, or loan for consumption; but they differ in this, that in the loan for use the lender retains the property in the thing lent, and it must be returned in individuo; in the loan for consumption, on the contrary, the things lent are to be consumed, such as money, corn, oats, grain, cider, &c., and the property in them is transferred to the borrower, who becomes a debtor to the lender for the same quantity of like articles. Poth. Pret a. Usage, n. 9, 10.

3. Several things are essential to constitute this contract; first, there must be a thing which is lent; and this, according to the civil law, may be either a thing movable, as a horse, or an immovable, as a house or land, or goods, or even a thing incorporeal. But in our law, the contract seems confined entirely to goods and chattels, or personal property, and not to extend to real estate. It must be a thing lent, in contradistinction to a thing deposited or sold, or entrusted to another for the purpose of the owner. Story on Bailm. 223.

4. Secondly. It must be lent gratuitously, for if any compensation is to be paid in, any manner whatsoever, it falls under Another denomination, that of hire. Ayliffe's Pand. B. 4, tit. 16, n. 516; Louis. Code, art. 2865; Pothier, Pret a Usage, c. 1, art. 1, n. 1, c. 2, art., 3, n. 11.

5. Thirdly. It must be lent for use, and for the use of the borrower. It is not material whether the use be exactly that which is peculiarly appropriate to the thing lent, as a loan of a bed to lie on, or a loan of a horse to ride; it is equally a loan, if the thing is lent to the borrower for any other purpose; as, to pledge as a security on his own account. Story on Bailm. 225. But the rights of the borrower are strictly confined to the use actually or impliedly agreed to by the lender, and cannot be lawfully exceeded. Poth. Pret a Usage, c. 1, 1, art. l, n. 5. The use may be for a limited time, or for an indefinite time.

6. Fourthly. The property must be lent to be specifically returned to the lender at the determination of the bailment; and, in this respect it differs from a mutuum, or loan for consumption, where the thing borrowed, such as corn, wine, and money, is to be returned in kind and quantity. See Mutuum. It follows, that a loan for use can never be of a thing which is to be consumed by use; as, if wine is lent to be drunk at a feast, even if no return in kind is intended, unless, perhaps, so far as it is not drunk; for, as to, all the rest, it is strictly a gift.

7. In general, it may be said that the borrower has the right to use the thing during the time and for the purpose which was intended between the parties. But this right is strictly confined to the use, expressed or implied in the particular transaction; and the borrower, by any excess, will make himself responsible. Jones' Bailm. 68; Cro. Jac. 244; 2 Ld. Raym. 909,916; 1 Const. Rep. So. Car. 121; Louis. Code: art. 2869; Code Civil, art. 1881; 2 Bulst. 306.

8. The obligations of the borrower are to take proper care of the thing borrowed, to use it according to the intention of the lender, to restore it in proper time, and to restore it in proper condition. Story on Bailm. 236; Louis. Code, art. 2869; Code Civ. 1880.

9. By the common law, this bailment may always be terminated at the pleasure of the lender. (q. v.) Vin. Abr. Bailment, D; Bac. Abr. Bailment, D.

10. The property in the thing lent in a loan for use, remains in the lender, Story on Bailment, 283; Code Civil, art. 1877; Louis. Code, art. 2866.

11. It is proper to remark that the loan for use must be lawful; a loan by Peter to Paul of a ladder to enable him to commit a larceny, or of a gun, to commit a murder, is not a loan for use, but Peter by this act becomes an accomplice of Paul. 17 Duv. n. 503; 6 Duverg. n. 32.

LOCAL. Pertaining to a place; something annexed to the freehold or tied to a certain place; as, local courts, or courts whose jurisdiction is limited to a particular place; local allegiance, or allegiance due while you are in a particular place or country; local taxes, or those which are collected for particular districts.

LOCAL ACTION, practice, pleadings. An action is local when the venue must be laid in the county where the cause of action arose. 1 Chit. PI'. 271; 21 Vin. Ab. 79; 3 Bl. Com. 294; Bac. Ab. Actions, Local, &c.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 15 Mass. 284; 1 Brock. 203; 1 Greenl. 246. Vide Action; Venue.

LOCALITY, Scotch law. This name is given to a life rent created in marriage contracts in favor of the wife, instead of leaving her to her legal life rent of terce. 1 Bell's Com. 55. See Jointure.

LOCATIO. Hire; a letting out.

LOCATIO CONDUCTIO, Civil law. Location conduction is a consensual contract, by which a person becomes bound to deliver to another the use of a thing for a certain time, or to do work at. a certain price. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 984.

LOCATIO MERCIUM VEHENDARUM, contracts. A term used in the civil law to signify the carriage of goods for hire.

2. In respect to contracts of this sort entered into by private persons, not exercising the business of common carriers, there does not seem to be any material distinction varying the rights, obligations and duties of the parties from those of other bailees for hire. Every such private person is bound to ordinary diligence, and a reasonable exercise of skill; and of course he is not responsible for any losses not occasioned by ordinary negligence unless he has expressly, by the terms of his contract, taken upon himself such risk. 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 917, 918; 4 Taunt. 787; 6 Taunt. 577; 2 Marsh. 293,; Jones' Bailm. 103, 106, 121; 2 Bos. & Pull. 1l7; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1020. See Common Carrier.

LOCATIO OPERIS, contracts. A term used in the civil law, to signify the hiring of labor and services. It is a contract by which one of the parties gives a certain work to be performed by the other, who binds himself to do it for the price agreed between them, which he who gives the work to be done promises to pay to the other for doing it. Poth. Louage, n. 392. This is divided into two branches, first, Locatio operis faciendi; and, secondly, Locatio mercium vehendarum. See these words.

LOCATIO OPERIS FACIENDI, contracts. A term used in the civil law. There are two kinds, first, the location operis faciendi, strictly so called, or the hire of labor and services; such as the hire of tailors to make clothes, and of jewelers to set gems, and of watchmakers to repair watches. Jones' Bailm. 90, 96, 97. Secondly, Locatio custodiae, or the receiving of goods on deposit for a reward, which is properly the hire of care and attention about the goods. Story on Bailm. 422, 442; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 994.

2. In contracts for work, it is of the essence of the contract, first, that there should be work to be done; secondly, for a price or reward; and, thirdly, a lawful contract between parties capable and intending to contract. Pothier, Louage, n. 395 to 403.

LOCATIO REI, contracts. A term used in the civil law, which signifies the hiring of a thing. It is a contract by which one of the parties obligates himself to, give to the other the use and enjoyment, of a certain thing for a period of time agreed upon between them, and in consideration of a price which the latter binds himself to pay in return. Poth. Contr. de Louage, n. l. See Bailment; Hire; Hirer; Letter.

LOCATION, contracts. A contract by which the temporary use of a subject, or the work or service of a person, is given for an ascertained hire. 1 Bell's Com. B. 2, pt. 3, c. 2, s. 4, art. 2, 1, page 255. Vide Bailment; Hire.

LOCATION, estates. Among surveyors, who are authorized by public authority to lay out lands by a particular warrant, the act of selecting the land designated in the warrant and surveying it, is called its location. In Pennsylvania, it is an application made by any person for land, in the office of the secretary of the late land office of Pennsylvania, and entered in the books of said office, numbered and sent to the surveyor general's office. Act June 25, 1781, 2, 2 Sm. Laws, 7.

LOCATOR, civil law. He who leases or lets a thing to hire to another. His duties are, 1st. To deliver to the hirer the thing hired, that he may use it. 2d. To guaranty to the hirer the free enjoyment of it. 3d. To keep the thing hired in good order in such manner that the hirer may enjoy it. 4th. To warrant that the thing hired has not such defects as to destroy its use. Poth. Du. Contr. de Louage, n. 53.

LOCK-UP HOUSE. A place used, temporarily as a prison.

LOCO PARENTIS. In the place of a parent.

2. It is frequently important in cases of devises and bequests, to ascertain whether the testator did or did not stand towards the devisee or legatee, in loco parentis. In general, those who assume the parental character may be considered as standing in that relation but this character must clearly appear.

3. The fact of his so standing may be shown by positive proof, or the express declarations of the testator in his will, or by circumstances; as, when a grandfather; 2 Atk. 518; a brother; 1 B. & Beat. 298; or an uncle; 2 A. 492; takes an orphan child under his care, or supports him, he assumes the office of a parent. The law places a master in loco parentis in relation to bis apprentice. See 2 Ashm. R. 178, 207; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2216.

LOCUM TENENS. He who holds the place of another, a deputy; as A B, locum tenens of C D, mayor of the city of Philadelphia.

LOCUS. The place where a thing is done.

LOCUS CONTRACTUS. The place of the contract. In general, the law of the place where the contract is made, governs in everything which relates to the mode of construing it. Vide Lex loci contractus.

LOCUS DELICTI. The place where the tort, offence, or injury bas been committed.

LOCUS POENITENTIAE. contracts, crim. law. Literally this signifies a place of repentance; in law, it is the opportunity of withdrawing from a projected contract, before the parties are finally bound; or of abandoning the intention of committing a crime, before it has been completed, 2 Bro. C. R. 569; Ersk. Laws of Scotl. 290. Vide article Attempt.

LOCUS IN QUO. The place in which. In pleadings it is the place where any- thing is alleged to have been done. 1 Salk. 94.

LOCUS REI SITAE. The place where a thing is situated. In proceedings in rem, in real actions in the civil law, or: those which have for their object the recovery of a thing; and in real actions in the common law, or those for the recovery of land, the proper forum is the locus rei sitae. 2 Gall. R. 191.

LOCUS SIGILLI. The place of the seal. 2. In many of the states, instead of sealing deeds, writs, and other papers or documents requiring it, a scroll is made in which the letters L. S. are printed or written, which is an abbreviation of Locus Sigilli. This in some of the states has all the efficacy of a seal, but in others it has no such effect. See Scroll.

LODGER. One who has a right to inhabit another man's house. He has not the same right as a tenant; and is not entitled to the same notice to quit. Woodf. L. &_T. 177. See 7 Mann. & Gr. 87; S. C. 49 E. C. L. R. 85, 151, and article Inmate.

LODGINGS. Habitation in another's house, in which the owner dwells; the oc- cupier being termed a lodger.

LOG BOOK. A ship's journal. It contains a minute account of the ship's course, with a short history of every occurrence during the vovage. 1 Marsh. Ins. 408. When a log books required by law to be kept, it is an official register so far as regards the transactions required by law to be entered in it, but no further. Abbott on Shipp. by Story, 468, n. 1; 1 Summ. R. 373 2 Summ. 19, 78; 4 Mason, R. 544; 1 Esp. R. 427.

LOQUELA, practice. An imparlance. Loquela sine die, a respite in law to an indefinite time. Formerly by loquela was meant the allegations of fact mutually made on either side, now denominated the pleadings. Steph. PI. 29.

LORD. In England, this is a title of honor. Fortunately in the U. S. no such titles are allowed.

LORD'S DAY. The same as Sunday. (q. v.) Dies Dominicus non est juridicus. Co. Litt. 135; Noy's Max. 2.

 
 
 
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