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MINT. The place designated by law, where money is coined by authority of the government of the United States.

2. The mint was established by the Act of April 2, 1792, 1 Story's L. U. S. 227, and located at Philadelphia, where, by virtue of sundry acts of congress, it still remains. Act of April 24, 1800, 1 Story, 770; Act of March 3, 1801, 1 Story, 816; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2120.

3. Below will be found a reference to the acts of congress now in force in relation to the mint. Act of January 18, 1837, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2120; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Id. 2120; Act of May 3, 1835; Act of February 13, 1837; Act of March 3, 1849; Act of March 3, 1851, s. 11. Vide Coin; Foreign Coin; Money.

MINUTE, measures. In divisions of the circle or angular measures, a minute is equal to sixty seconds, or one sixtieth part of a degree.

2. In the computation of time, a minute is equal to sixty seconds, or the sixtieth part of an hour. Vide Measure.

MINUTE, practice. A memorandum of what takes place in court; made by authority of the court. From these minutes the record is afterwards made up. 2. Toullier says, they are so called because the writing in which they were originally, was small, that the word is derived, from the Latin minuta, (scriptura) in opposition to copies which were delivered to the parties, and which were always written in a larger hand. 8 Toull. n. 413.

3. Minutes are not considered as any part of the record. 1 Ohio R. 268. See 23 Pick. R. 184.

MINUTE BOOK. A book kept by the clerk or prothonotary of a court, in which minutes of its proceedings are entered. It has been decided that minutes are no part of the record. 1 Ohio R. 268.

MIRROR DES JUSTICES. The Mirror of Justices, a treatise written during the reign of Edward II. Andrew Horne is its reputed author. It was first published in 1642, and in 1768 it was translated into English by William Hughes. Some diversity of opinion seems to exist as to its merits. Pref. to 9 & 10 Co. Rep. As to the history of this celebrated book see St. Armand's Hist. Essays on the Legislative power of England, 68, 59.

MIS. A syllable which prefixed to some word signifies some fault or defect; as, misadventure, misprision, mistrial, and the like.

MISADVENTURE, crim. law, torts. An accident by which an injury occurs to another.

2. When applied to homicide, misadventure is the act of a man who, in the performance of a lawful act, without any intention to do harm, and after using proper precaution to prevent danger, unfortunately kills another person. The act upon which the death ensues, must be neither malum in se, nor malum prohibitum. The usual examples uuder this head are, 1. When the death ensues from innocent recreations. 2. From moderate and lawful correction (q. v.) in foro domestico. 3. From acts lawful and indifferent in themselves, done with proper and ordinary caution. 4 Bl. Com. 182; 1 East, P C. 221.

MISBEHAVIOUR. Improper or unlawful conduct. See 2 Mart. N. S. 683.

2. A party guilty of misbehaviour; as, for example, to threaten to do injury to another, may be bound to his good behaviour and thus restrained. See Good Behaviour.

3. Verdicts are not unfrequently set aside on the ground of misbehaviour of jurors; as, when the jury take out with them papers which were not given in evidence, to the prejudice of one of the parties. Ld. Raym. 148. When they separate before they have agreed upon their verdict. 3 Day, 237, 310., When they cast lots for a verdict; 2 Lev. 205; or, give their verdict because they have agreed to give it for the amount ascertained by each juror putting down a sum, adding the whole together, and then dividing by twelve the number of jurors, and giving their verdict for the quotient. 15 John. 87. See Bac. Ab. Verdict, H.

4. A verdict will be set aside if the successful party has been guilty of any misbehaviour towards the jury; as, if he say to a juror, "I hope you will find a verdict for me;" or " the matter is clearly of my side." 1 Vent. 125; 2 Roll. Ab. 716, pl. 17. See Code, 166, 401; Bac. Ab. Verdict, I.

MISCARRIAGE, med. jurisp. By this word is technically understood the expul- sion of the ovum or embryo from the uterus within the first six weeks after conception; between that time and before the expiration of the sixth month, when the child may possibly live, it is termed abortion. When the delivery takes place soon after the sixth month, it is denominated premature labor. But the criminal act of destroying the foetus at any time before birth, is termed in law, procuring miscarriage. Chit. Med. Jur. 410; 2 Dunglison's Human Physiology, 364. Vide Abortion; Foetus.

MISCARRTAGE, contracts, torts. By the English statute of frauds, 29, C. II., c. 3, s. 4, it is enacted that "no action shall be brought to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement," &c. "shall be in writing," &c. The word miscarriage, in this statute comprehends that species of wrongful act, for the consequences of which the law would make the party civilly responsible. The wrongful riding the horse of another, without his leave or license, and thereby causing his death, is clearly an act for which the party is reasonsible in damages, and therefore, falls within the meaning of the word miscarriage. 2 Barn. & Ald. 516; Burge on Sur. 21.

MISCASTING. By this term is not understood any pretended miscasting or mis- valuing, but simply an error in auditing and numbering. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4128.

MISCOGNlSANT. This word, which is but little used, signifies ignorant or not knowing. Stat. 32 H. VIII. c. 9.

MISCONDUCT. Unlawful behaviour by a person entrusted in any degree: with the administration of justice, by which the rights of the parties and the justice of the, case may have been affected.

2. A verdict will be set aside when any of the jury have been guilty of such misconduct, and a court will set aside an award, if it has been obtained by the misconduct of an arbitrator. 2 Atk. 501, 504; 2 Chit. R. 44; 1 Salk. 71; 3 P. Wms. 362; 1 Dick. 66.

MISCONTINUANCE, practice. By this term is understood a continuance of a suit by undue process. Its effect is the same as a discontinuance. (q. v.) 2 Hawk. 299; Kitch. 231; Jenk. Cent. 57.

MISDEMEANOR, crim. law. This term is used to express every offence infe- rior to felony, punishable by indictment, or by particular prescribed proceedings; in its usual acceptation, it is applied to all those crimes and offences for which the law has not provided a particular name; this word is generally used in contradistinction to felony; misdemeanors comprehending all indictable offences, which do not amount to felony, as perjury, battery, libels, conspiracies and public nuisances.

2. Misdemeanors have sometimes been called misprisions. (q. v.) Burn's Just. tit. Misdemeanor; 4 Bl. Com. 5, n. 2; 2 Bar. & Adolph. 75: 1 Russell, 43; 1 Chitty, Pr. 14; 3 Verm. 347; 2 Hill, S. C. 674; Addis. 21; 3 Pick. 26; 1 Greenl. 226; 2 P. A. Browne, 249; 9 Pick. 1; 1 S. & R. 342; 6 Call. 245; 4 Wend. 229; 2 Stew. & Port. 379. And see 4 Wend. 229, 265; 12 Pick. 496; 3 Mass. 254; 5 Mass. 106. See Offence.

MISDIRECTION, practice. An error made by a judge in charging the jury in a special case.

2. Such misdirection is either in relation to matters of law or matters of fact.

3. - 1. When the judge at the trial misdirects the jury, on matters of law, material to the issue, whatever may be the nature of the case, the verdict will be set aside, and a new trial granted; 6 Mod. 242; 2 Salk. 649; 2 Wils. 269; or if such misdirection appear in the bill of exceptions or otherwise upon the record, a judgment founded on a verdict thus obtained, will be reversed. When the issue consists of a mixed question of law and fact and there is a conceded state of facts, the rest is a question for the court; 2 Wend. R. 596; and a misdirection in this respect will avoid the verdict.

4. - 2. Misdirection as to matters of fact will in some cases be sufficient to vitiate the proceedings. If, for example, the judge should undertake to dictate to the jury. When the, judge delivers, his opinion to the jury on a matter of fact, it should be delivered as mere opinion, and not as direc- tion. 12 John. R. 513. But the judge is in general allowed to very liberal discretion in charging a jury on matters of fact. 1 McCl. & Y. 286.

5. As to its effects, misdirection must be calculated to do injustice; for if justice has been done, and a new trial would produce the same result, a new trial will not be granted on that account, 2 Salk. 644, 646; 2 T. R. 4; 1 B. & P. 338; 5 Mass. R. 1; 7 Greenl. R. 442; 2 Pick. R. 310; 4 Day's R. 42; 5 Day's R. 329; 3 John. R. 528; 2 Penna. R. 325.

MISE, English law. In a writ of right which is intended to be tried by the grand assize, the general issue is called the mise. Lawes, Civ. Pl. 111; 7 Cowen, 51. This word also signifies expenses, and it is so commonly used in the entries of judgments in personal actions; as when the plaintiff recovers, the judgment is quod recuperet damna sua for such value, and pro mises et custagiis for costs and charges for so much, &c.

MISERABILE DEPOSITUM, civ. law. The name of an involuntary deposit, made under pressing necessity; as, for instance, shipwreck, fire, or other inevitable calamity. Poth. Proced. Civ. 5eme part., ch. 1, 1 Louis. Code, 2935.

MISERICORDIA, mercy. An arbitrary or discretionary amercement.

2. To be in mercy, is to be liable to such punishment as the judge may in his discretion inflict. According to Spelman, misericordia is so called, because the party is in mercy, and to distinguish this fine from redemptions, or heavy fines. Spelm. GI. ad voc.; see Co. Litt. 126 b, and Madox's Excheq. c. 14. See Judgment of Misericordia.

MISFEASANCE, torts, contracts. The performance of an act which might lawfully be done, in an improper manner, by which another person receives an injury. It differs from malfeasance, (q. v.) or, nonfeasance (q. v.) Vide, generally, 2 Vin. Ab. 35; 2 Kent, Com. 443; Doct. Pl. 62; Story, Bail. 9.

2. It seems to be settled that there is a distinction between misfeasance and nonfeasance in the case of mandates. In cases of nonfeasance, the mandatary is not generally liable, because his undertaking being gratuitous, there is no consideration to support it; but in cases of misfeasance, the common law gives a remedy for the injury done, and to the extent of that injury. 5 T. R. 143; 4 John. Rep. 84; Story, Bailment, 165; 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 919, 920; 2 Johns. Cas. 92; Doct. & Stu. 210; 1 Esp. R. 74; 1 Russ. Cr. 140; Bouv. Inst. Index h. t.

MISJOINDER, pleading. Misjoinder of causes of action, or counts, consists in joining, in different counts in one declaration, several demands, which the law does not permit to be joined, to enforce several distinct, substantive rights of recovery; as, where a declaration joins a count in trespass with another in case, for distinct wrongs or a count in tort, with another in contract. Gould. 6n PI. c. 4, 98; Archb. Civ. PI. 61, 78 176; Serg. and Rawle, 358; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

2. Misjoinder of parties, consists in joining as plaintiffs or defendants, persons, who have not a joint interest. When the misjoinder relates to the plaintiffs, the defendants may, at common law, plead the matter in abatement, whether the action be real; 12 H. IV., 15; personal; Johns. Ch. R. 350, 438; 12 John. R. 1; 2 Mass. R. 293; or mixed; or it will be good cause of nonsuit at the trial. 3 Bos. & Pull. 235. Where the objection appears upon the face of the declaration, the defendant may demur generally; 2 Saund. 145; or move in arrest of judgment; or bring a writ of error.

3. When in actions ex contractu against several, there is a misjoinder of the defendants, as if there be too many persons made defendants, and the objection appears on the pleadings, either of the defendants may demur, move in arrest of judgment, or support a writ of error; and, if the objection do not appear on the pleadings, the plaintiff may be nonsuited upon the trial, if he fail in proving a joint contract. 5 Johns. R. 280; 2 Johns. R. 213; 11 Johns. R. 101; 5 Mass. R. 270.

4. In actions ex delicto, the misjoinder cannot in general be objected to, because in actions for torts, one defendant may be found guilty and the others acquitted. Archb. Civ. Pl. 79. As to the cases in which a misjoinder may be aided by a nolle prosequi, see 2 Archb. Pr. 218-220.

MISNOMER. The act of using a wrong name.

2. Misnomers, may be considered with regard to contracts, to devises and bequests, and to suits or actions.

3. - 1. In general, when the party can be ascertained, a mistake in the name will not avoid the contract. 11 Co. 20, 21; Lord Raym. 304; Hob. 125. Nihil facit error nominis, cum de corpori constat, is the rule of the civil law.

4. - 2. Misnomers of legatees will not in general avoid the legacy, when tho person intended can be ascertained from the context. Example: Thomas Stockdale bequeathed "to his nephew Thomas Stockdale, second son of his brother John Stockdale," 1000, John had no son named Thomas, his second son was named William, and he claimed the legacy. It was determined, in his favor, because the mistake of the name was obviated by the correct description given of the person, namely, the second son of John Stockdale. 19 Ves. 381; S. C. Coop. 229; and see Ambl. 175; 3 Leon. 18; Co; Litt. 3 a; Finch's R. 403; Domat l. 4, t. 2, s. 1, n. 22; 1 Rop. Leg. 131.

5. - 3. Misnomers in suits or actions, when the mistake is in the name of one of the parties, must be pleaded in abatement; 1 Chit. Pl. 440; 1 Mass. 76; 5 Mass. 97; 15 Mass. 469; 16 Mass: 146; 10 S. & R. 257; 4 Cowen, R. 148; Coxe, 138; 6 Munf. 219; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 200; 2 Penna. R. 984; 5 Halst. R. 295; 1 Pen. R. 75, 137; 6 Munf. 580; 3 Caines, 170; 1 Tayl. R. 148; 8 Yerg. 101; Harp. R. 49; for the misnomer of one of the parties sued is not material on the general issue, when the identity is proved. 16 East, R. 110.

6. The names of third persons must, be correctly laid, for the error will not be helped by pleading the general issue; but, if a sufficient description be given, it has been held, in a civil case, that the misnomer was immaterial. Example: in an action for medicines alleged to have been furnished to defendant's wife, Mary, and his wife was named Elizabeth, the misnomer was held to be immaterial, the word wife being the material word. 2 Marsh. R. 159. In indictments, the names of third persons must be correctly given. Rose. Cr. Ev. R. 78. Vide, generally, 18 E. C. L. R. 149; 10 East, R. 83, n; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; 1 Vin. Ab. 7; 15 Vin. Ab. 466; 2 Phil, Ev. 2, note b; Bac. Ab. Abatement, D; Archb. Civ. Pl. 305; 1 Metc. & Perk. Dig. Abatement, V; and this Dictionary, Abatement; Contracts; Parties to Contracts; Parties to Actions.

MISPLEADING. Pleading incorrectly, or omitting anything in pleading which is essential to the support or defence of an action, is so called.

2. Pleading not guilty to an action of debt, is an example of the first; and when the plaintiff sets out a title not simply in a defective manner, but sets out a defective title, is an example of the second. See 3 Salk. 365.

MISPRISION, crim. law. 1. In its larger sense, this word is used to signify every considerable misdemeanor, which has not a certain name given to it in the law; and it is said that a misprision is contained in every treason or felony whatever. 2. In its narrower sense it is the concealment of a crime.

2. Misprision of treason, is the concealment of treason, by being merely passive; Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, 1 Story's L. U. S. 83; 1 East, P. C. 139; for if any assistance be given, to the traitor, it makes the party a principal, as there is no accessories in treason.

3. Misprison of felony, is the like concealment of felony, without giving any degree of maintenance to the felon; Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, s. 6, 1 Story's L. U. S. 84; for if any aid be given him, the party becomes an accessory after the fact.

4. It is the duty of every good citizen, knowing of a treason or felony having been committed; to inform a magistrate. Silently to observe the commission of a felony, without using any endeavors to apprehend the offender, is a misprision. 1 Russ. on Cr. 43; Hawk. P. C. c. 59, s. 6; Id. Book 1, c. s. 1; 4 Bl. Com. 119.

5. Misprisions which are merely positive, are denominated contempts or high misdemeanors; as, for example, dissuading a witness from giving evidence. 4 Bl. Com. 126.

MISREADING, contracts. When a deed is read falsely to an illiterate or blind man, who is a party to it, such false reading amounts to a fraud, because the contract never had the assent of both parties. 5 Co. 19; 6 East, R. 309; Dane's Ab. c. 86, a, 3, 7; 2 John. R. 404; 12 John. R. 469; 3 Cowen, R. 537.

MISRECITAL, contracts, pleading. The incorrect recital of a matter of fact, either in an agreement or a plea; under the latter term is here understood the declaration and all the subsequent pleadings. Vide Recital, and the cases there cited; and Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. B. 5, n. 3.

MISREPRESENTATION, contracts. The statement made by a party to a contract, that a thing relating to it is in fact in a particular way, when he knows it is not so.

2. The misrepresentation must be both false and fraudulent, in order to make the party making it, responsible to the other for damages. 3 Com. R. 413; 10 Mass. R. 197; 1 Rep. Const. Court, 328, 475, Yelv. 21 a, note l; Peake's Cas. 115; 3 Campb. 154; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 10, s. 1. And see Representation. It is not every misrepresentation which will make a party liable; when a mere misstatement of a fact has been erroneously made, without fraud, in a casual, improvident communication, respecting a matter which the person to whom the communication was made, and who had an interest in it, should not have taken upon trust, but is bound to inquire himself, and had the means of ascertaining the truth, there would be no responsibility; 5 Maule & Selw. 380; 1 Chit. Pr. 836; 1 Sim. R. 13, 63; and when the informant was under no legal pledge or obligation as to the precise accuracy and correctness of his statement, the other party can maintain no action for the consequences of that statement, upon which it was his indiscretion to place reliance. 12 East, 638; see also, 2 Cox, R. 134; 13 Ves. 133; 3 Bos. & Pull. 370; 2 East, 103; 3 T. R, 56, 61; 3 Bulstr. 93; 6 Ves. 183; 3 Ves. & Bea. 110; 4 Dall. R. 250. Vide Concealment; Representation; Suggestio falsi; Suppressio veri.

MISSING SHIP, mar. law. When a ship or other vessel has been at sea for a much longer time than she ought to have been, she is presumed to have perished there with all on board, and such a vessel is called a missing ship.

2. There is no precise time fixed as to when the presumption is to arise, and this must depend upon the circumstances of each case. 2 Str. R. 1199; Park. Ins. 63; Marsh. Ins. 488; 2 Johns. R. 150; 1 Caines' R. 525; Holt's N. P. Rep. 242.

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