PATENT LAWS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. The patent laws of Great
Britain and Ireland will be briefly considered by taking a view of the persons
to whom patents will be granted; the different kinds of patents; the time for
which they are granted; and the expenses attending them.
2. - §1. To whom patents are granted. Both foreigners and subjects may obtain
letters-patent; but inasmuch as the applicant must accompany his petition by a
declaration made before a master in chancery, or a master extraordinary in
chancery, that he has made such an invention; that he is the true and first
inventor thereof; or that it is new in the kingdom, according to the special
circumstances of the case, the applicant must be present in Great Britain.
3. - §2 The different kinds of patents. This will be considered by taking a
view, first, of the object of a patent, and secondly, the territory over which a
4. - 1. The thing patented must be, 1. A discovery or invention made by the
applicant himself, in the United Kingdom. 2. The introduction or importation of
an invention known abroad, and in this case, the introducer is the true and
first inventor, within the realm. 3. Though not absolutely the true and first
inventor, by reason of some one else having made the same invention and kept it
secret, yet the invention must have been made public by the applicant, and as
the first publisher, the applicant will be entitled to letters-patent. Novelty
and utility are essential conditions of the grant, but it is of no consequence
whether the discovery was known or not, in a country foreign to the United
Kingdom. Webst. on Pat. 11 and 70, note w. A recent act of parliament, passed
July 1, 1852, (15 & 16 Viet. cap. 83,) amended the English patent' system in
several important particulars. The cardinal features of the new system are: 1,
protection from the day of the application 2, one patent for the United Kingdom;
3, moderate cost and periodical paywent; 4, printing and publishing of
specifications; 5, one office of patents and specifications. Webster's New
Patent Law, p. 41. By the 18th sec. of said act, letters patent are sealed with
the great seal of the United Kingdom, and extend to the whole of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of man;
also, to the colonies or plantations, or such of them as the applicant may
designate in his petition for the letters patent and the law officer of the
crown shall insert, in his warrant for the seal ing of the patent. The patent
may bear date as of the, day of the application, or of the sealing, or of any
intermediate day. The patent is granted for fourteen years, subject however to
the condition that it shall be void at the expiration of three years and of
seven years respectively from the date thereof, unless before the expiration of
the said three years and seven years, stamps of the value of X50 and X100
respectively, be affixed to the letters patent. The cost of obtaining letters
patent is, in the first instance, X20 if the patent is unopposed; if opposed,
there are additional fees amounting to nearly X5. By sec. 26, letters patent
obtained in the United Kingdom for patented foreign inventions are not to
continue in force after the expiration of the foreign patent.
PATENT, PRUSSIAN. This subject will be considered by taking a view of
the persons who may obtain patents; the nature of the patent; and the duration
of the right.
2. - §1, Of the persons who may obtain patents. Prussian citizens or subjects
are alone entitled to a patent. Foreigners can not obtain one.
3. - §2. Nature of the patents. Patents are granted in Prussia for an
invention when the thing has been discovered or invented by the applicant. For
an improvement, when considerable improvement has been made to a thing before
known. And for importation, when the thing has been brought from a foreign
country and put in use in the kingdom. Patents may extend over the whole country
or only over a particular part.
4. - §3. Duration of patents. The patent may at the choice of the applicant,
be for any period not less than six months nor more than fifteen years.
PATENT, ROMAN. The Roman patents will be considered by taking a view
of the persons to whom they may be granted; the different kinds of patents; the
cost of a patent; and the obligations of thepatentee.
2. - §1. To whom patents are granted. Every person, whether a citizen of the
estates of the pope or foreigner, man or woman, adult or infant, may obtain a
patent for an invention, for an improvement, or for importation, by fulfilling
the conditions prescribed in order to obtain a grant of such titles. Persons who
have received a patent from the Roman government may, afterwards, without any
compromise of their rights or privileges, receive a patent in a foregn country.
3. The different kinds of patents. In the Roman estates there are granted
patents for invention, for improvements, and for importations.
4. - 1st. Patents for inventions are granted for, 1. A new kind of important
culture. 2. A new and useful art, before unknown. 3. A new and useful process of
culture or of manufacture. 4. A new natural production. 5. A new application of
a means already, known.
5. - 2d. Patents for improvements may be granted for any useful improvement
made to inventions already known and used in the Roman states.
6. - 3d, Patents for importations are granted in two cases, namely: 1. For
the introduction of inventions already patented in a foreign country, and the
privilege of which patent yet continues. 2. For the introduction of an invention
known and freely used in a foreign country, but not yet used or known in the
7. - 3. Cost of a patent. The cost of a patent is fixed at a certain sum per
annum, without regard to the length of time for which it may have been granted.
It varies in relation to patents for inventions and importation. It is ten Roman
crowns per annum for a patent for invention and improvement, and of fifteen
crowns a year for a patent for importation.
8. - §4. Obligation of the patentee. He is required to bring into uue his
invention within one year after the grant of the patent, and not to suspend the
supply for the space of one year during the time the privilege shall last.
9. He is required to pay one balf of the tax or expense of his patent on
receiving his patent, and the other half during the first month of the second
portion of its, duration.
PATENT-OFFICE. An office bearing this name was established by law, and
by the act Of congress of July 4, 1836, which repeals all acts theretofore
passed in relation to patents, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2504, it is
provided, §1. That there shall be established and attached to the department of
state, an office to be denominated the patent office; the chief officer of which
shall be called the commissioner of patents, to be appointed by the president,
by and with the advice and consent of the senate, whose duty it shall be, under
the direction of the secretary of state, to superintend, execute, and perform,
all such acts and things touching and respecting the granting and issuing of
patents for new and useful discoveries, inventions, and improvements, as are
herein provided for, or shall hereafter be, by law, directed to be done and
performed, and shall have the charge and custody of all the books, records,
papers, models, machines, and all other things belonging to said office. And
said commissioner, shall receive the same compensation as is allowed by law to
the commissioner of the Indian department, and shall be entitled to send and
receive letters and packages by mail, relating to the businesss of the office,
free of postage.
2. - §2. That there shall be in said office, an inferior officer, to be
appointed by the said principal officer, with the approval of the secretary of
state, to receive an annual salary of seventeen hundred dollars, and to be
called the chief clerk of the patent-office; who in all cases during the
necessary absence of, the commissioner, or when the said 'principal office shall
become vacant, shall have the charge and custody of the seal, and of the
records, books, papers, machines, models, and all other things belonging to the
said office, and shall perform the duties of commissioner during such vacancy.
And the, said commissioner may also, with like approval, Appoint an examining
Clerk, at an annual salary of fifteen hundred dollars; two other clerks at
twelve hundred dollars each, one of whom shall be a competent draughtsman; one
other clerk at one thousand dollars; a machinist at twelve hundred and fifty
dollars; and a messenger at seven hundred dollars. And said commissioner,
clerks, and every other person appointed and employed in said office, shall be
disqualified, and interdicted from acquiring or taking, except by inheritance,
daring the, period for which they shall hold their appointments, respectively,
any right or interest, directly or indirectly, in any patent for an invention or
discovery which has been, or may hereafter be granted.
3. - §3. That the said principal officer, and every other person to be
appointed in the said office, shall, before he enters upon the duties of his
office or appointment, make oath or affirmation, truly and faithfully to execute
the trust committed to him. And the said commissioner and the chief clerk shall
also, before entering upon their duties, severally give bond with sureties to
the treasurer of the United States, the former in the sum of ten thousand
dollars, and the latter, in the sum of five thousand dollars, with condition to
render a true and faithful account to him or his successor in office, quarterly
of all moneys which shall be by them respectively received for duties on
patents, and for copies of records, and drawings, and all other moneys received
by virtue of said office.
4. - §4. That the said commissioner shall cause a seal to be made and
provided for the said office, with such device as the president of the United
States shall approve, and copies of any records, books, papers, or drawings,
belonging to the said office, under the signature of the said commissioner, or
when the office shall be vacant, under the signature of the chief clerk, with
the said seal affixed, shall be competent evidence in all, cases in which the
original records, books, papers, or drawing, could be evidence. And any person
making application therefor, may have certified copies of the records, drawings,
and other papers deposited in said office, on paying, for the written copies,
the sum of ten cents for, every page of one hundred words; and for copies of
drawing, the reasonable expense of making the same.
PATENTEE. He to whom a patent has been granted. The term is usually
applied to one who has obtained letters-patent for a new invention.
2. His rights are, 1. To make, sell and enjoy the profits, during the
existence, of his rights, of the invention or discovery patented. 2. To recover
damages for a violation of such rights. 3. To have an injunction to prevent any
infringement of such rights.
3. His duties are to supply the public, upon reasonable terms, with the thing
PATER. Father. A term used in making genealogical tables.
PATER FAMILLIAS, civil law. One who was sui juris and consequently was
not either under parental power, nor under that of a master; a child in his
cradle, therefore, could have been pater familias, if he had neither a master
nor a father. Lec. Elem. §127, 128.
PATERNA PATERNIS. This expression is used in the French law to signify
that in a succession, the property coming from the father of the deceased,
descends to his paternal relations.
PATERNAL. That which belongs to the father or comes from him: as,
paternal power, paternal relation, paternal estate, paternal line. Vide Line.
PATERNAL POWER. Patria potestas, The, authority lawfully exercised by
parents, over their children. It will be proper to consider, 1. Who are entitled
to exercise this power. 2. Who are subject to it. 3. The extent of this power.
2. - 1. As a general rule the father is entitled to exert the paternal power
over his children. But for certain reasons, when the father acts improperly, and
against the interest of those over whom nature and the law have given him
authority, he loses his power over them. It being a rule that whenever the good
of the child requires it, the courts will deliver the custody of the children to
others than the father. And numerous instances may be found where, for good
reasons, the custody will be given to the mother.
3. The father of a bastard child has no control over him; the mother has the
right to the custody and control of such child. 2 Mass. 109; 12 Mass. 887.
4. - 2. All persous are subject to this power until they arrive at the full
age of twenty-one years. A father may, however, to, a certain extent, deprive
himself of this unlimited paternal power, first, by delegating it to others, as
when he binds his son an apprentice; and, secondly, when he abandons his
children, and permits them to act for themselves. 2 Verm. Cas. 290; 2 Watts, 408
4 S. & R. 207; 4 Mass. 675.
5. - 3. The principle upon which the law is, founded as to the extent of
paternal power is, that it be exerted for the benefit of the child. The child is
subject to the lawful commands of the father to attend to his business, because
by being so subjected he acquires that discipline and the practice of attending
to business, which will be useful to him in after life. He is liable to proper
correction for the same reason. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 326-33. See Correction; Father;
PATERNAL PROPERTY. That which descends or comes from the father and
other ascendants, or collaterals of the paternal stock. Domat. Liv. Prel. tit,
3, s. 2.
PATERNITY, The state or condition of a father.
2. The hushand is prima facie presumed to be the father of his wife's
chhildren, born during coverture, or within a competent time afterwards pater is
est quem nuptim demonstrant. 7 N. S. 553. But this presumption may be rebutted
by showing circumstances which render it impossible that the hushand can be the
father. 6 Binn. 283; 1 Browne's R. Appx. xlvii.; Hardin's R. 479; 8 East, R.
193; Stra. 51, 940. 4 T. R; 356;. 2 M. & K. 349; 3 Paige's R. 139; I Sim.
& Stu. 150; Turn. & Russ. 138; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 302, et seq.
3. The declarations of both or one of the spouses, however, cannot affect the
condition of a child born during the marriage. 7 N. S. 553; 3 Paige's R. 139.
Vide Bastard;. Bastardy;, Legitimacy; Maternity; Pregnancy.
PATHOLOGY, med. jur. The science or doctrine of diseases. In cases of
homicides, abortions, and the like, it is of great consequence to the legal
practitioner to be acquainted, in some degree, with pathology. 2 Chit. Pr. 42,
PATRIA. The country; the men of the neighborhood competent to serve on
a jury; a jury. This word is nearly synonymous with pais. (.q. v.)
PATRIA POTESTAS, Civil law. Paternal power; (q. v.) the authority
which is lawfully exercised by the father over his children.
PATRICIDE. One guilty of killing his father.
PATRIMONIAL. A thing, which comes from the father, and by extension,
from the mother or other ancestor.
PATRIMONIUM, civil law. That which is capable, of being inherited.
2. Things capable of being possessed by a single person exclusively of all
others, are, in the Roman or civil law, said to be in patrimonio; when incapable
of being so possessed they are extra-patrimonium.
3. In general, things may be inherited, but there are some which are said to
be extra patrimonium, or which are not in commerce. These are such as are
common, as the light of heaven, the air, the sea, and the like. Things public,
as rivers, harbors, roads, creeks, ports, arms of the sea, the, sea-shore,
highways, bridges, and the like. Things which belong to cities and municipal
corporations, as public-squares, streets, market houses, and the like. See, 1
Bouv. Inst. n. 421 to 446.
PATRIMONY. Patrimony is sometimes understood to mean all kinds of
property but its more limited signification , includes only such estate, as has
descended in the same family and in a still more confined sense, it is only that
which has descended or been devised in a direct line from the father, and by
extension, from the mother, or other ancestor.
2 . By patrimony, patrimonium, is also understood the father's duty to take
care of his children. Sw. pt. 3, §18, n. 31, p. 235.
PATRINUS. A godfather.
PATRON, eccles. law. He who has the disposition and gift of an
ecclesiastical benefice. In the Roman law it signified the former master of a
freedman. Dig. 2, 4, 8, 1.
PATRONAGE. The right of appointing to office; as the patronage of the
president of the United States, if abused, may endanger the liberties of the
2. In the ecclesiastical law, it signifies the right of presentation to a
church or ecclesiastical benefice. 2 Bl. Com. 21.
PATRONUS, Roman civil law. This word is a modification of the, Latin
word pater, father; a denomination applied by Romulus to the first, senators of
Rome, and which they always afterwards bore. Romulus at first appointed a
hundred of them. Seven years afterwards, in consequence of the association of
Tatius to the Romans, a hundred more were appointed, chosen from the Sabines.
Tarquinius Priscus increased the number to three hundred. Those appointed by
Romulus and Tatius were called patres majorum gentium and the others were called
patres minorum gentium. These and their descendants constituted, the nobility of
Rome. The rest of the people were called lebeians, every one of whom was obliged
to choose one of these fathers as his patron. The relation thus constituted
involved important consequences. The plebeian, who was called (cliens) a client,
was obliged to furnish the means of maintenance to his chosen patron; to firnish
a portion for his patron's daughters; to ransom him and his sons, if captured by
an enemy, and pay all sums recovered against him by judgment, of the 'courts.
The patron, on the other hand, was, obliged to watch over the interests of his
client, whether present or absent to protect his person and property, and
especially to defend him in all, actions brought against him for any cause.
Neither could accuse or bear testimony against the other, or give contrary
votes, &c. The contract was of a sacred nature,; the violation of it was a
sort of treason, and punishable as such. According to Cicero, (De Repub. II. 9,)
this relation formed an integral part of the governmental system, Et habutit
plebem in clientelas principum descri ptum, which he affirms was eminently
useful. Blackstone traces the system of vassalage to this. ancient relation of
patron and client. It was, in fact, of the same nature as the feudal
institutions of the middle ages, designed to maintain order in a rising state by
a combination of the opposing interests of the aristocracy and of the common
people, upon the principle of reciprocal bonds for mutual interests, Dumazeau,
Barreau Romain, §III. Ultimately, by force of radical changes in the
institution, the word patronus came to signify notbing more than an advocate.
PATRUELIS, civil law. A cousin german by the father's side; the son or
daughter of a father's brother. Dig. 38i 10, 1.
PATRUUS, citq law. An uncle by the father's side, a father's brother.
Dig. 38, 10, 10, Patruus magnus, is a grandfather's brother, grand uncle.
Patruus major, is a great-grandfather's brother. Patruus maximus, is a,
great-grandfather's father's brother.
PAUPER. One so poor that he must be supported at the public expense.
2. The statutes of the several states make ample provisions for the support
of the poor. It is not within the plan of this work even to give an abstract of
such extensive legislation. Vide 16 Vin. Ab. 259;Botts on thc Poor Laws; Woodf.
Landl. & Ten. 901.
PAVIAGE. Contribution or tax. for paving the streets or highways.
PAWN. A pledge. Vide Pledge.
PAWN-BROKER. One who is lawfully authorized to lend money, and
actually lends it, usually in small sums, upon pawn or pledge.
PAWNEE. He who receives a pawn or pledge.
2. The rights of the pawnee are to have the exclusive possession of the pawn;
to use it, when it is for the advantage of the pawner, but, in such case, when
he makes a profit out of it, he must account for the same. 1 Car. Law Rep. 8 7;
3. The pawnee is bound to take reasonable care, of the pledge, and to return
it to the, pawnor, when the obligation of the latter has been performed.
4. The pawnee has two remedies to enforce his claim; the first, to sell the
pawn, after having given due notice; and, secondly, by action. See. 1 Bouv.
Inst. n. 1046, 1050.
PAWNOR. One who, being liable to an engagement, gives to the person to
whom he is liable, a thing to be held as a security for the payment of his debt
or the fulfilment of his liability.
2. The rights of the pawnor are to redeem the pledge, at any time before it
3. His oblioations are to warrant the title of the pledge, and to redeem it
at the time agreed upon. See 1 Bouv. lnst. n. 1045.
PAYEE. The person in whose favor a bill of exchange is made payable.
Vide Bills of Exchange.