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PAYMENT, contracts. That which is given to execute what has been promised; or it is the fulfilment of a promise. Solvere dicimus cum quis fecit, quod facere promisit. But though this is the general acceptation of the word, yet by payment is understood, every way by which the creditor is satisfied or ought to be, and the debtor, liberated for example, an accord and satisfaction will operate as a payment. If I owe you a sum of money, for the security of which I give you a mortgage, and afterwards you consent to receive in payment a tract of land, from the moment the sale is complete, the first obligation, with all its accessories, is extinct, although you should be afterwards evicted of the property sold. 7 Toull. n. 46 2 Mart. Lo. Rep. N. S. 144; S. C. 2 Harr. Cond. Lo. R. 621, 624.

2. This subject will be considered by taking a separate view of the person by whom the payment may be made; to whom it may be made; when and where it ought to be made; how it ought to be made; the effect of the payment.

3. - 1. The payment may be made by the real debtor and other persons from whom the creditor has a right to demand it; an agent may make payment for his principal; and any mode of payment by the agent, accepted and received as such by the creditor, as an absolate payment will have the effect to discharge the principal, whether known or unknown, and whether it be in the usual course of business or not. If, for example, a factor or other agent should be employed to purchase goods for his principal, or should be entrusted, with money to be paid for him, and, instead of receiving the money, the creditor or seller should take the note of the factor or agent; payable at a future day, as an absolute payment, the principal would be discharged from the debt. 3 Chit. Com. Law, 204; 1 B. & Ald. 14; 6 B. & C. 160; 7 B. & C. 17. When such note has been, received conditionally and not as an absolute payment, it would not have the effect of a payment by the principal; and whether so received or not is a fact to be decided by the jury. 1 Cowen, R, 259, 383; 9 John. R:, 310; 6 Cowen, R. 181; 7 John. R. 311; 15 John. R. 276; 3 Wend. R. 83; 6 Wend. R. 475; 10 Wcnd. R. 271; 5 John., R. 68; 1 Liverm. Ag. 207.

4. Payment may also be made by a third person a stranger to the contract.

5. In the payment of mortgages, it is aś20rule, that the personal estate shall be applied to discharge them when made by the testator or intestate himself, to secure the payment of a debt due by bim, because the personal estate was benefited by the money borrowed; and it makes no difference whether the mortgaged lands have been devised, or come to the heir by descent. 2 Cruise, 1 Dig. 147. The testator may, however, exempt the personal estate from the payment, and substitute the real in its place. But when the mortgage was not given by the deceased, but be acquired the real estate subject to it, it never was his debt, and therefore his personal estate is not bound to pay the mortgage debt, but it must be paid by the real estate. 2 Cruise, Dig. 164-8; 3 John. Chan. R. 252; 2 P. Wms. 664, n. 1; 2 Bro. C. C. 57; 2 Bro. C. C. 101, 152; 5 Ves. jr. R. 534; 14 Ves. 417.

6. - 2. It must be made by the creditor himself, or his assigns, if known, or some person authorized by him, either expressly or by implication; as to his factor; Cowp. 251: to his broker, 1 Maul. & Selw. 576; 4 Id. 566; 4 Taunt. 242; 1 Stark. Ca. 238.

7. In the case of partners and other joint creditors, or joint execuutors or administrators, payment to one is generally a valid payment. When an infant is a creditor, payment must be made to his guardian. A payment may be good when made to a person who had no authority to receive it, if the creditor shall afterwards ratify it. Poth. Obl. n. 528.

8. - 3. Time and place of payment: first, as to the time. When the contract is, that payment shall be made at a future time, it is clear that nothing can be demanded until after it has elapsed, or until any other condition to which the payment is subject, has been fulfilled; and in a case where the goods had been sold at six or nine months, the debtor had the option as to those two terms. 5 Taunt, 338. When no time of payment is mentioned in the agreement, the money is payable immediately. 1 Pet. 455; 4 Rand. 346.

9. Secondly, the payment must be made at the place agreed upon in the contract; but in the absence of such agreement, it must be made agreeably to the presumed intention of the parties, which, among other things, may be ascertained by the nature of the thing to be paid or delivered, or by the custom in such cases.

10. - 4. How the payment ought to be made. To make a valid payment, so as to compel the receiver to take it, the whole amount due must be paid; Poth. Obl. n. 499, or n. 534, French edition; when a part is accepted, it is a payment pro tanto. The payment must be made in the thing agreed upon; but when it ought to be made in money, it must be made in the lawful coin of the country, or in bank notes which are of the value they are represented to be. A payment made in bills of an insolvent bank, though both parties may be ignorant of its insolvency, it has been held, did not discharge the debt; 11 Verm. 676; 6 Hill, 340; but see 1 W. & S. 92; 8 Yerg. 175; and a payment in counterfeit bank notes is a nullity. 2 Hawks, 326; 3 Hawks, 568, 6 Hill, 840. Iii general, the payment of a part of a debt, after it becomes due, will not discharge the whole, although there may be an agreement by the debtor that it should have that effect, because there is no consideration for such agreement. But see 3 Kelly's R. 210, contra. A payment of a part, before it is due, will discharge the whole, when so agreed.

11. - 5. The payment, when properly made, discharges the debtor from his obligation. Sometimes a payment extinguishes several obligations; this happens when the thing given to discharge an obligation was the same which is the object of another obligation. Poth. Obl. 552.

12. A single payment may discharge several debts; as, for example if Peter be indebted to Paul one thousand dollars, and Paul being indebted to James, Paul give an order to Peter to pay Tames this money; the payment made by Peter to James discharges both the obligations due by Peter to Paul, and by Paul to James. Poth. Ob. n. 553. This rule, that a payment made in order to acquit or discharge an obligation, extinguishes the other obligations which have the same object, takes place also when there are several debtors as regards the whole of them. If, for example, Peter trust Paul on the credit of James, a payment by Paul discharges both himself and James. Poth. Obl. n. 554.

13. But in case money or other things have been delivered to a person who was supposed to be entitles to them as a creditor, when he was not, this is not a payment, and the whole, if nothing was due, or if the debt was less than the amount paid, the surplus, may be recovered in action for money bad and received. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Com. Di g. 473; 8 Com. Dig. 607; 16 Vin 6; 1 Vern. by Raith. 3, 150 n. Yelv. 11 a; 1 Salk. 22; 15 East, 12; 8 East, R. 111; 2 Ves. jr. 11; Phil. Ev. Index, b, t,; Stark. Ev. h. t.; Louis. Code, art. 2129; Ayl. Pand. 565; 1 Sell. Pr. 277; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Toull. lib. 3, tit. 3, c. 5; Pardes. part 2, tit. 2, c. 1 Merl. Repert. h. t.; Chit. Contr. Index, h. t.; 3 Eng. C. L. Rep. 130. As to what transfer will amount to an assignment or a payment and extinguishment of a claim, see 6 John. Ch. R. 395; Id. 425; 2 Ves. jr. 261 18Ves. jr. 384; 1 N. H. Rep. 167; 1 N. H. Rep. 252; 2 N. H. Rep. 300; 3 John. Ch. R. 53.

PAYMENT, pleadings. The name of a plea by which the defendant alleges that he has paid the debt claimed in the declaration; this plea must conclude to the country. 4 Call, 371; Minor, 137. Vide Solvit ad them; Solvit post diem.

PAYS. The country. Trial per pays, is a trial by the country; that is, by jury. Vide Pais.

PAX REGIS, Eng. law. The king's peace. In ancient times there were certain limits which were known by this name. The pax regis, or the verge of the court, as it was afterwards called, extended from the palace gate to the distance of three miles, three furlongs, three acres, nine feet, nine palms and nine barleycorns. Crabb's C. L. 41.

PEACE. The tranquillity enjoyed by a political society, internally, by the good order which reigns among its members, and externally, by the good understanding it has with all other nations. Applied to the internal regulations of a nation, peace imports, in a technical sense, not merely a state of repose and security, as opposed to one of violence and warfare, but likewise a state of public order and decorum. Ham. N. P. 139; 12 Mod. 566. Vide, generally, Bac. Ab. Prerogative, D 4; Hale, Hist. P. C. 160; 3 Taunt. R. 14; 1 B. & A. 227; Peake, R. 89; 1 Esp. R. 294; Harr. Dig. Officer, V 4; 2 Benth. Ev. 319, note. Vide Good behaviour; Surety of the peace.

PECK. A measure of capacity, equal to two gallons. Vide Measure.

PECULATION, civil law. The unlawful appropriation by a depositary of public funds, of the property of the government entrusted to his care, to his own use or that of others. Domat, Suppl. au Droit Public, liv. 3, tit. 5.

PECULIAR, eccles. law. In England, a particular parish or church, which has, within itself, independent of the ordinary jurisdiction, power to grant probate of wills, and the like. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 72, note; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 538. Vide Court of peculiars.

PECULIUM, civil law. The savings which were made by a son or slave with the consent of his father or master. Inst. 2, 9, 1; Dig. 15, 1, 5, 3; Poth. ad Pand. lib. 50 , tit. 17, c. 2, art. 3.

2. A master is not entitled to the extraordinary earnings of his apprentice, which do not interfere with his services so as to affect his master's profits. An apprentice was therefore decreed to be entitled to salvage in opposition to his master's claim for it. 2 Cranch, 270.

PECUNIA, civil law, property By the term was understood, 1. Money. 2. Every thing which constituted the private property of an individual, or which was a part of his fortune; a slave' a field, a house, and the like, were so considered.

2. It is in this sense the law of the Twelve Tables said; Uti quisque pater familias legassit super pecunia tutelare rei suae, ita jus esto. In whatever manner a father of a family may have disposed of his property, or of the tutorship of his things, let this disposition be law. 1 Lecons Elem. du Dr. Civ. Rom. 288.

3. Flocks were the first riches of the ancients, and it is from pecus that the words pecania, peculium, peculatus, are derived. Co. Litt. 207.

PECUNIARY. That which relates to money.

2. Pecuniary punishment, is one which imposes a fine on a convict; a pecuniary legacy is one which entitles the legatee to receive a sum of money, and not a specific chattel. In the ecclesiastical law, by pecuniary causes is understood such causes as arise either from the withholding ecclesiastical dues, or the doing or omitting such acts relating to the church, in consequence of which damage accrues to the plaintiff. In England these causes are cognizable in the ecclesiastical courts.

PEDIGREE, descents. A succession of degrees from the origin; it is the state of the family as far as regards the relationship of the different members, their births, marriages and deaths; this term is applied to persons or families, who trace their origin or descent.

2. On account of the difficulty of proving in the ordinary manner by living witnesses, facts which occurred in remote times, hearsay evidence (q. v.) hasbeen admitted to prove a pedigree. 1 Phil. Ev. 186; 1 Stark. Ev. 55; 10 Serg. & Rawle, 383; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 110; 8 Com. Dig. 583 1 Pet. 337; 6 Pet., 81; 13 Pet. 209 1 Wheat. 6; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 243; 4 Wash.C.C.R.186; 3Bouv.Inst.n. 3067. Vide Descent; Line.

PEDIS POSSESSIO. A foothold, an actual possession. To constitute adverse possession there must be pedis possessio, or a substantial enclosure. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2193; 2 N. & M. 343.

PEDLARS. Persons who travel about the country with merchandise, for the purpose of selling it. They are obliged under the laws of perhaps all the states to take out licenses, and to conform to the regulations which those laws establish.

PEER. Equal. A man's peers are his equals. A man is to be tried by his peers.

2. In England and some other countries, this is a title of nobility; as, peers of the realm. In the United States, this equality is not so much political as civil. A man who is not a citizen, is nevertheless to be tried by citizens.

PEERESS. A noblewoman, the wife of a peer.

PEINE FORTE ET DURE, Eng. law A punishment formerly inflicted in England, on a person who, being arraigned of felony, refused to plead and put himself on his trial, and stubbornly stood mute. He was to be laid down and as much weight was to be put upon him as he could bear, and more, until he died. This barbarous punishment has been abolished. Vide Mute.

PELTWOOL. The wool pulled off the skin or pelt of a dead ram.

PENAL. That which may be punished; that which inflicts a punishment.

PENAL STATUTES. Those which inflict a penalty for the violation of some of their provisions.

2. It is a rule of law that such statutes must be construed strictly. 1 Bl. Com. 88; Esp. on Pen. Actions, 1; Bosc. on Conv.; Cro. Jac. 415; 1 Com. Dig. 444; 5 Com. Dig. 360; 1 Kent, Com. 467. They cannot, therefore, be extended by their spirit or equity to other offences than those clearly described and provided for. Paine, R. 32; 6 Cranch, 171.

PENALTY, contr. A clause in an agreement, by which the obligor agrees to pay a certain-sum of money, if he shall fail to fulfil the contract contained in another clause of the same agreement.

2. A penal clause in an agreement supposes two obligations, one of which is the primitive or principal; and the other, is, conditional or accessory.

3. The penal obligation differs from an alternative obligation, for this is but one in its essence; while a penalty always includes two distinct engagements, and, when the first is fulfilled, the second is void. When a breach has taken place, the obligee has his option to require the fulfilment of the first obligation, or' the payment of the penalty, in those cases which cannot be relieved in equity, when the penalty is considered as liquidated damages. Dalloz, Dict. mots Obligation avec clause penale.

4. It is difficult, in many cases, to distinguish between a penalty and liquidated damages. In general, the courts have inclined to consider the sum reserved by such agreement to be a penalty, rather than as stipulated damages. (q. v.)

5. The sum will be considered as a penalty, and not as liquidated damages, in the following cases: 1. When the parties to the agreement have expressly declared the sum to be a penalty, and no other intent is to be collected from the instrument. 2 Bos. & P. 346; 1 H. Bl. 227; 1 Pick. 45 1; 4 Pick. 179; 7 Wheat. 14; 3 John. Cases, 297. 2. When from the form of the instrument, as in the case of a money bond, it is sufficiently clear a penalty was intended.

3. When it is doubtful whether the sum was intended as a penalty or not, and a certain damage or debt is made payable on the face of the instrument. 2 B. & P. 350; 3 C. & P. 240. 4. When the agreement was evidently made for the attainment of another object, to which the sum, specified is wholly collateral, 11 Mass. 76; 15 Mass. 488; 1 Bro. C. C. 418, 419. 5. When the agreement contains several matters, of different degrees of importance, and yet the sum mentioned is payable for the breach of any, even the least. 6 Bing. 141; 5 Bing. N. C. 390; 7 Scott, 364. 6. When the contract is not under seal, and the damages may be ascertained and estimated; and this though the parties have expressly declared the sum to be as liquidated damages. 2B. & Ald. 704; 6 B. & C. 216; 4 Dall. 150; 5 Cowen, 144. See 2 Greenl. Ev. 258. 1 Holt N. P. C. 43 1 Bing. R. 302; S. C. 8 Moore, 244; 4 Burr. 2229.

6. The penalty remains unaffected, although the condition may have been partially performed; as in a case where the penalty was one thousand dollars, and the condition was to pay an annuity of one hundred dollars, which had been paid for ten years; the penalty was still valid. 5 Verm. 365.

7. A distinction seems to be made in courts of equity between penalties and forfeitures. In cases of forfeiture for the breach of any covenant other than a covenant to pay rent, relief will not be granted in equity, unless upon the ground of accident, fraud, mistake, or surprise, when the breach is capable of compensation. Edin. on Inj. 22; 16 Ves. 403; S. C. 18 Ves. 58 3 Ves. 692; 4 Bouv. List. n. 3915.

8. By penalty is understood, also, the punishment inflicted by law for its violation; the term is mostly applied to a pecuniary punishment. See 6 Pet. 404; 10 Wheat. 246; 1 Gall. R. 26; 2 Gall. R. 515; 1 Mason, R. 243; 3 John. Cas. 297: R. 451; 15 Mass. 488; 7 John. 72 4 Mass. 433; 8 Mass. 223; 8 Com. Dig. 846; 16 Vin. Ab. 301; 1 Vern. 83, n.; 1 Saund. 58, n.; 1 Swans. 318; 1 Wash. C. C. R. 1; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 323; Paine, C. C. R. 661; 7 Wheat. 13. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

PENANCE, eccl. law. An ecclesiastical punishment, inflicted by an ecclesiastical court, for some spiritual offence. Ayl. Par. 420.

PENCIL. An instrument made of plumbago, black lead, red chalk, or other suitable substance, for writing without ink.

2. It has been holden that a will written with a pencil, could riot, on this account, be annulled. 1 Phillim. R. 1; 2 Phillim. 173.

PENDENTE LITE. Pending the continuance of an action, while litigation continues.

2. An administrator is appointed, pendente lite, when a will is contested. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1557. Vide ddministrator.

PENDENTES, civil law. The fruits of the earth not yet separated from the ground; the fruits hanging by the roots. Ersk. Inst. B. 2, Lit. 2, s. 4.

 
 
 
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