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RELEASE, contracts. A release is the giving or discharging of a right of action which a man has or may claim against another, or that which is his. Touch. 320 Bac. Ab. h. t.; Co. Litt. 264 a.

2. This kind of a release is different from that which is used for the purpose of convoying real estate. Here a mere right is surrendered; in the other case not only a right is given up, but an interest in the estate is conveyed, and becomes vested in the release.

3. Releases may be considered, as to their form, their different kinds, and their effect. 1. The operative words of a release are remise, release, quitclaim, discharge and acquit; but other words will answer the purpose. Sid. 265; Cro. Jac. 696; 9 Co. 52; Show. 331.

4. - 2. Releases are either express, or releases in deed; or those arising by operation of law. An express release is one which is distinctly made in the deed; a release by operation of law, is one which, though not expressly made, the law presumes in consequence of some act of, the releasor; for instance, when, one of several joint obligors is expressly released, the others are also released by operation of law . 3 Salk. 298. Hob. 10; Id. 66; Noy, 62; 4 Mod. 380; 7 Johns. Rep. 207.

5. A release may also be implied; as, if a creditor voluntarily deliver to his debtor the bond, note, or other evidence of his claim. And when the debtor is in possession of such security, it will be presumed that it has been delivered to him. Poth. Obl. n. 608, 609.

6. - 3. As to their effect, releases 1st, acquit the releasee: and 2dly, enable him to be examined as a witness.

7. - 1st. Littleton says a release of all demands is the best and strongest release. Sect. 508. Lord Coke, on the contrary, says claims is a stronger word. Co. Litt. 291 b.

8. In general the words of a release will he restrained by the particular occasion of giving it. 3 Lev. 273; 1 Show. 151: 2 Mod. 108, n.; 2 Show. 47; T. Raym. 399 3 Mod. 277; Palm. 218; 1 Lev. 235.

9. The reader is referred to the following cases where a construction has been given to the expressions mentioned. A release of "all actions, suits and demands," 3 Mod. 277: " all actions, debts, duties, and demands," Ibid. 1 and 64; 3 Mod. 185; 8 Co. 150 b; 2 Saund. 6 a; all demands," 5 Co. 70, b; 2 Mod. 281; 3 Mod 278; 1 Lev. 99; Salk. 578; 2 Rolle's Rep. 12 Mod. 465; 2 Conn. Rep. 120; "all actions, quarrels, trespasses " Dy. 2171 pl. 2; Cro. Jac. 487; " all errors, and all actions, suits, and writs of error whatsoever," T. Ray. 3 99 all suits," 8 Co. 150 of covenants," 5 Co. 70 b.

10. - 2d. A release by a witness where he has an interest in the matter which is the subject of the suit or release by the party on whose side he is interested, renders him competent. 1 Phil. Ev. 102, and the cases cited in n. a. Vide 2 Chitt. It. 329; 1 D. & R. 361; Harr. Dig. h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

RELEASE, estates. The "conveyance of a man's interest or right, which he hath unto a thing, to another that hath the possession thereof, or some estate therein." Touch. 320.

2. The words generally used in such conveyance, are, "remised, released, and forever quit claimed." Litt. s ec, 445.

3. Releases of land are, in respect of their operation, divided into four sorts. 1. Releases that enure by way of passing the estate, or mitter l'estate. (q. v.) 2. Releases that enure by way of passing the right, or mitter le droit. 3. Releases that enure by enlargement of the estate; and

4. Releases that enure by way of extinguishment. Vide 4 Cruise, 71; Co. Lit. 264; 3 Marsh. Decis. 185; Gilb. Ten. 82; 2 Sumn. R. 487; 10 Pick. R. 195; 10 John. R. 456; 7 Mass. R. 381; 8 Pick. R. 143; 5 Har. & John. 158; N. H. Rep. 402; Paige's R. 299.

RELEASEE. A person to whom a release is made.

RELEASOR. He who makes a release.

ELEGATION, civil law. Among the Romans relegation was a banishment to a certain place, and consequently was an interdiction of all places except the one designated.

2. It differed from deportation. (q. v.) Relegation and deportation agree u these particulars: 1. Neither could be in a Roman city or province. 2. Neither caused the party punished to lose his liberty. Inst. 1,16 , 2; Digest, 48, 22, 4; Code, 9, 47,26.

3. Relegation and deportation differed in this. 1. Because deportation deprived of the right of citizenship, which was preserved notwithstanding the relegation. 2. Because deportation was always perpetual, and relegation was generally for a limited time. 3. Because deportation was always attended with confiscation of property, although not mentioned in the sentence; while a loss of property was not a consequence of relegation unless it was perpetual, or made a part of the sentence. Inst. 1, 12, 1 & 2; Dig. 48, 20, 7, 5; Id. 48, 22, 1 to 7; Code, 9, 47, 8.

RELEVANCY. By this term is understood the evidence which is applicable to the issue joined; it is relevant when it is applicable to the issue, and ought to be admitted; it is irrelevant, when it does not apply; and it ought then to be excluded. 3 Hawks, 122; 4 Litt. Rep. 272; 7 Mart. Lo. R. N. S. 198. See Greenl. Ev. 49, et seq.; 1 Phil. Ev. 169; 11 S. & R. 134; 7 Wend. R. 359; 1 Rawle, R. 311; 3 Pet. R. 336; 5 Harr. & Johns. 51, 56; 1 Watts. & Serg. 362; 6 Watts. R. 266; 1 S. & R. 298.

RELEVANT EVIDENCE. That which is applicable to the issue and which ought to be received; the phrase is used in opposition to irrelevant evidence, which is that which is not so applicable, and which must be rejected. Vide Relevancy.

RELICT. A widow; as A B, relict of C D.

RELICTA VFRIFICATIONE. When a judgment is confessed by cognovit actionem after plea pleaded, and then the plea is withdrawn, it is called a confession or cognovit actionem relicta verificatione. He acknowledges the action having abandoned his plea. See 5 Halst. 332.

RELICTION. An increase of the land by the sudden retreat of the sea or a river.

2. Relicted lands arising from the sea and in navigable rivers, (q. v.) generally belong to the state and all relicted lands of unnavigable rivers generally belong to the proprietor of the estate to which such rivers act as boundaries. Schultes on Aqu. Rights, 138; Ang. on Tide Wat. 75. But this reliction must be from the sea in its usual state for if it should inundate the land and then recede, this would be no reliction. Harg. Tr. 15. Vide Ang. on Wat. Co. 220. 3. Reliction differs from avulsion, (q. v.) and from alluvion. (q. v.)

RELIEF, Engl. law. A relief was an incident to every feudal tenure, by way of fine or composition with the lord for taking up the estate which was lapsed or fallen in by the death of the last tenant. At one time the amount was arbitrary; but afterwards the relief of a knight's fee became fixed at one hundred shillings. 2 Bl. Com. 65.

RELIEF, practice. That assistance which a court of chancery will lend to a party to annul a contract tinctured with fraud, or where there has been a mistake or accident; courts of equity grant relief to all parties in cases where they have rights, ex aequo et bono, and modify and fashion that relief according to circumstances.

RELIGION. Real piety in practice, consisting in the performance of all known duties to God and our fellow men.

2. There are many actions which cannot be regulated by human laws, and many duties are imposed by religion calculated to promote the happiness of society. Besides, there is an infinite number of actions, which though punishable by society, may be concealed from men, and which the magistrate cannot punish. In these cases men are restrained by the knowledge that nothing can be hidden from the eyes of a sovereign intelligent Being; that the soul never dies, that there is a state of future rewards and punishments; in fact that the most secret crimes will be punished. True religion then offers succors to the feeble, consolations to the unfortunate, and fills the wicked with dread.

3. What Montesquieu says of a prince, applies equally to an individual. "A prince," says he, " who loves religion, is a lion, which yields to the hand that caresses him, or to the voice which renders him tame. He who fears religion and bates it, is like a wild beast, which gnaws, the chain which re-strains it from falling on those within its reach. He who has no religion is like a terrible animal which feels no liberty except when it devours its vic- tims or tears them in pieces." Esp. des , Lois, liv. 24, c. 1.

4. But religion can be useful to man only when it is pure. The constitution of the United States has, therefore, wisely provided that it should never be united with the state. Art. 6, 3. Vide Christianity; Religious test; Theo- cracy.

RELIGIOUS TEST. The constitution of the United States, art. 6, s. 3, de-clares that "no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust under the United States."

2. This clause was introduced for the double purpose of satisfying the scruples of many respectable persons, who feel an invincible repugnance to any religious test or affirmation, and to cut off forever every pretence of any alliance between church and state in the national government. Story on the Const. 1841.

RELINQUISHMENT, practice. A forsaking, abandoning, or giving over a right; for example, a plaintiff may relinquish a bad count in a declaration, and proceed on the good: a man may relinquish a part of his claim in order to give a court jurisdiction.

RELOCATION, Scotch law, contracts. To let again to renew a lease, is called a relocation.

2. When a tenant holds over after the expiration of his lease, with the consentof his landlord, this will amount to a relocation.

REMAINDER, estates. The remnant of an estate in lands or tenements expectant on a particular estate, created together with the same, at one time. Co. Litt. 143 a.

2. Remainders are either vested or contingent. A vested remainder is one by which a present interest passes to the party. though to be enjoyed in future; and by which the estate is invariably fixed to remain to a determinate person, after the particular estate has been spent. Vide 2 Jo ins. R. 288; 1 Yeates, R. 340.

3. A contingent remainder is one which is limited to take effect on an event or condition, which may never happen or be performed, or which may not happen or be performed till after the determination of the preceding particular estate; in which case such remainder never can take effect.

4. According to Mr. Fearne, contingent remainders may properly be distin-guished into four sorts. 1. Where the remainder depends entirely on a contin-gent determination of the preceding estate itself. 2. Where the contingency on which the remainder is to take effect, is independent of the determination of the preceding estate. 3. Where the condition upon which the remainder is limited, is certain in event, but the determination of the particular estate may happen before it. 4. Where the person, to whom the remainder is limited, is not yet ascertained, or not yet in being. Fearne, 5.

5. The pupillary substitutions of the civil law somewhat resembled contingent remainders. 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 214, n.; Burr. 1623. Vide, generally, Viner's Ab. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t; Com. Dig. h. t.; 4 Kent, Com. 189; Yelv. 1, n.; Cruise, Dig. tit. 16; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 184; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

REMAINDER-MAN. One who is entitled to the remainder of the estate after a particular estate carved out of it has expired.

TO REMAND. To send back or recommit. When a prisoner is brought before a judge on a habeas corpus, for the purpose of obtaining his liberty, the judge hears the case, and either discharges him or not; when there is cause for his detention, he remands him.

REMANDING A CAUSE, practice. The sending it back to the same court out ofwhich it came for the purpose of having some action on it there. March, R. 100.

REMANENT PRO DEFECTU EMPTORUM, practice. The return made by the sheriff to a writ of execution when he has not been able to sell the property seized, that the same remains unsold for want of buyers: in that case the plaintiff is entitled to a venditioni exponas. Com. Dig. Execution, C. 8.

REMANET, practice. The causes which are entered for trial, and which cannot be tried during tho term, are remanets. Lee's Dict. Trial, vii.; 1 Sell. Pr. 434; 1 Phil. Ev., 4.

REMEDIAL. That which affords a remedy; as, a remedial statute, or one which is made to supply some defects or abridge some superfluities of the common law. 1 131. Com. 86. The term remedial statute is also applied to those acts which give a new remedy. Esp. Pen. Act. 1.

 
 
 
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