New York Lawyer WS
New York Layer, law dictionary, legal dictionary, dictionary online, word search, lawyer search, law and order, attorney, law school    

SALVAGE, maritime law. This term originally meant the thing or goods saved from shipwreck or other loss; and in that sense it is generally to be understood in our old books. But it is at present more frequently understood to mean the compensation made to those by whose means the ship or goods have been saved from the effects of shipwreck, fire, pirates, enemies, or any other loss or misfortune. 1 Cranch, 1.

2. This compensation, which is now usually made in money, was, before the use of money became general, made by a delivery of part of the effects saved. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 8; Pet. Adm. Dec. 425; 2 Taunt. 302; 3 B. & P. 612; 4 M. & S. 159; 1 Cranch, 1; 2 Cranch, 240; Cranch, 221; 3 Dall. 188; 4 Wheat. 98 9 Cranch, 244; 3 Wheat. 91; 1 Day, 193 1 Johns. R. 165; 4 Cranch, 347; Com. Dig. Salvage; 3 Kent, Com. 196. Vide Salvors.

SALVAGE CHARGES. The expenses incurred to remunerate services rendered to a ship and cargo, which have prevented its being a total loss. Stev. on Av. c. 2, s. 1.

SALVAGE LOSS. By salvage loss is understood the difference between the amount of salvage, after deducting the charges, and the original value of the property. Stev. on Av. c. 2, s. 1.

SALVORS, mar. law. When a ship and cargo, or any part thereof, are saved at sea by the exertions of any person from impending perils, or are recovered after an actual abandonment or loss, such persons are denominated salvors; they are entitled to a compensation for their services, which is called salvage. (q. v.)

2. As soon as they take possession of property for the purpose of preserving it, as if they find a ship derelict at sea, or if they recapture it, or if they go on board a ship in distress, and take possession with the assent of the master or other person in possession, they are deemed boua fide possessors, and their possession cannot be lawfully displaced. 1 Dodson's Rep. 414. They have a lien on the property for their salvage, which the, laws of all maritime countries will respect and enforce. Salvors are responsible not only for good faith, but for reasonable diligence in their custody of the salvage property. Story, Bail. 623.

SAMPLE, contracts. A small quantity of any commodity or merchandise, exhibited as a specimen of a larger quantity called the bulk. (q. v.)

2. When a sale is made by sample, and it afterwards turns out that the bulk does not correspond with it, the purchaser is not, in general, bound to take the property on a compensation being made to him for the difference. 1 Campb. R. 113; vide 2 East, 314; 4, Campb. R. 22; 12 Wend. 566 9 Wend. 20; 6 Cowen, 354; 12 Wend. 413. See 5 John. R. 395.

SANCTION. That part of a law which inflicts a penalty for its violation, or bestows a reward for its observance. Sanctions are of two kinds, those which redress civil injuries, called civil sanctions; and those which punish crimes, called penal sanctions. 1 Hoffm. Leg. Outl. 279; Just. Ins. lib. 2, t. 1, 10; Ruthf. Inst. b. 2, c. 6, s. 6; Toull. tit. prel. 86; Ferguss. Inst. of Mor. Phil. p. 4, c. 3, s. 13, and p. 6, c. 1, et seq; 1 Bl. Com. 56.

SANCTUARY. A place of refuge, where the process of the law cannot be executed.

2. Sanctuaries may be divided into religious and civil. The former were very common in Europe; religious houses affording protection from arrest to all persons, whether accused of crime, or pursued for debt. This kind was never known in the United States.

3. Civil sanctuary, or that protection which is afforded to a man by his own house, was always respected in this country. The house protects the owner from the service of all civil process in the first instance but not if he is once lawfully arrested and takes refuge in his own house. Vide Door; House.

4. No place affords protection from arrest in criminal cases; a man may, therefore, be arrested in his own bouse in such cases, and the doors may be broken for the purpose of making the arrest. Vide Arrest in criminal cases.

SANE MEMORY. By this is meant that understanding which enables a man to make contracts and his will, and to perform such other acts as are authorized by law; Vide Lunacy; Memory; Non compos mentis.

SANG or SANC. Blood. These words are nearly obsolete.

SANITY, med. jur. The state of a person who has a sound understanding; the reverse of insanity.

2. The sanity of an individual is always presumed. 5 John. R. 144; 1 Pet. R. 163; 1 Hen. & M. 476; 4. Cowen, R. 207; 4 W. C. C. R. 262. See 9 Conn. 102; 9 Mass. 225; 3 Mass. 336 1 Mass. 71; 8 Mass. 371; 8 Greenl. 42; 15 John. 503; 4 Pick. 32.

SANS CEO QUE. The same as Absque hoc. (q. v.)

SANS NOMBRE. This is a French phrase, which signifies without number.

2. In England it is used in relation to the right of putting animals on a common. The term common sans nombre does not mean that the beasts are to be innumerable, but only indefinite, not certain; Willes, 227; but they are limited to the commoner's own commonable cattle, levant et couchant, upon his lands, or as many cattle as the land of the commoner can keep and maintain in winter. 2 Brownl. 101; Vent. 54; 5 T. R. 48; 1 Saund. 28, n. 4.

SANS RECOURS. Without recourse.

2. These words are sometimes put on a bill before the payee endorses it; they have the effect of transferring the bill without responsibility to the endorser. Chit. on Bills, 179; 7 Taunt. 160; 1 Cowen, 538; 3 Cranch, 193; 7 Cranch, 159; 12 Mass. 172; 14 S. & R. 325.

SATISDACTION, civil law. This word is derived from the same root as satisfaction; for, in the same manner that to fulfil the demand which is made upon us, is called satisfaction, so satisdaction takes place when he who demands something has agreed to receive sureties instead of the thing itself. Dig. 2, 8, 1

SATISFACTION, practice. An entry made on the record, by which a party in whose favor a judgment was rendered, declares that he has been satisfied and paid.

2. In Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and, Vermont, provision is made by statute, requiring the mortgagee to discharge a mortgage upon the record, by entering satisfaction in the margin. The refusal or neglect to enter satisfaction after payment and demand, renders the mortgagee liable to an action, after the time given him by the respective statutes for doing the same has elapsed, and subjects him to the payment of damages, and, in some cases, treble costs. In Indiana and New York, the register or recorder of deeds may himself discharge the mortgage upon the record on the exhibition of a certificate of payment and satisfaction signed by the mortgagee or his representatives, and attached to the mortgage, which shall be recorded. Ind. St. 1836, 64; 1 N. Y. Rev. St. 761.

SATISFACTION, construction by courts of equity. Satisfaction is defined to be the donation of a thing, with the intention, express or implied, that such donation is to be an extinguishment of some existing right or claim in the donee.

2. Where a person indebted bequeaths to his creditor a legacy, equal to, or exceeding the amount of the debt, which is not noticed in the will, courts of equity, in the absence of any intimation of a contrary intention, have adopted the rule that the testator shall be presumed to have meant the legacy as a satisfaction. of the debt.

3. When a testator, being indebted, bequeaths to his creditor a legacy, simpliciter, and of the same nature as the debt, and not coming within the exceptions stated in the next paragraph, it has been held a satisfaction of the debt, when the legacy is equal to, or exceeds the amount of the debt. Pre. Ch. 240; 3 P. Wms. 353.

4. The following are exceptions to the rule: 1. Where the legacy is of, less amount than the debt, it shall not be deemed a part payment or satisfaction. 1 Ves. pen. 263.

5. - 2. Where, though the debt and legacy are of equal amount, there is a difference in the times of payment, so that the legacy may not be equally beneficial to the legatee as the debt. Prec. Ch. 236; 2 Atk. 300; 2 Ves. sen. 63 5; 3 Atk. 96; 1 Bro. C. C. 129; 1 Bro. C. C. 195; 1 M'Clel. & Y. Rep. Exch. 41; 1 Swans. R. 219.

6. - 3. When the legacy and the debt are of a different nature, either with reference, to the subjects themselves, or with respect to the interests given. 2 P. Wms. 614; 1 Ves. jr. 298; 2 Ves. jr. 463.

7. - 4. When the provision by the will is expressed to be given for a particular purpose, such purpose will prevent the testamentary gift being construed a satisfaction of the debt, because it is given diverse intuitu. 2 Ves. sen. 635.

8. - 5. When the debt of the testator is contracted subsequently to the, making of the will; for, in that case, the legacy will not be deemed a satisfaction. 2 Salk. 508.

9. - 6. When the legacy is uncertain or contingent. 2 Atk. 300; 2 P. Wms. 343.

10. - 7. Where the debt itself is contingent, as where it arises from a running account between the testator and legatee; 1 P. Wms. 296; or it is a negotiable bill of exchange. 3 Ves. jr. 561.

11. - 8. Where there is an express direction in the will for the payment of debts end legacies, the court will infer from the circumstance, that the testator intended that both the debt owing from him to the legatee and the legacy, should, be paid. 1 P. Wms. 408; 2 Roper, Leg. 54.

See, generally, Tr. of Eq. 333; Yelv. 11, n.; 1 Swans. R. 221; 18 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 201; 4 Ves. jr. 301; 7 Ves. jr. 507; 1 Suppl. to Ves. jr. 204, 308, 311, 342, 348, 329; 8 Com. Dig. Appen. tit. Satisfaction, p. 917; Rob. on Frauds, 46, n. 15; 2 Suppl. to Ves. jr. 22, 46, 205; 1 Vern. 346; Roper, Leg. c. 17; 1 Roper on Hush. and Wife, 501 to 511; 2 Id. 53 to 63; Math. on Pres. c. 6, p. 107; 1 Desaus. R. 814; 2 Munf. Rep. 413; Stallm. on El. and Sat.

SATISFACTION PIECE, Eng. practice. An instrument of writing in which it is declared that, satisfaction is acknowledged between the plaintiff and defendant. It is signed by the attorney, and on its production and the warrant of attorney to the clerk of the judgments, satisfactio is entered on payment, of certain fees. Lee's Dict. of Pr. tit. Satisfaction.

SATISFACTORY EVIDENCE. That which is sufficient to induce a belief that the thing is true; in other words, it is credible evidence. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3049.

SCANDAL. A scandalous verbal report or rumor respecting some person.

2. The remedy is an action on the case.

3. In chancery practice, when a bill or other pleading contains scandal, it will be referred to a master to be expunged, and till this has been done, the opposite party need not answer. 3 Bl. Com. 342. Nothing is considered scandalous which is positively relevant to the cause, however harsh and gross the charge may be. The degree of relevancy is not deemed material. Coop. Eq. Pl. 19; 2 Ves. 24; 6 Ves. 514, 11 Ves. 626; 15 Ves. 477; Story Eq. Plo. 269 Vide Impertinent.

SCANDALUM MAGNATUM. Great scandal or slander. In England it. is the slander of the great men, the nobility of the realm.

SCHEDULE, practice. When an indictment is returned, from au inferior court in obedience to a writ of certiorari, the, statement of the previous proceedings sent with it, is termed the schedule. 1 Saund. 309, a, n. 2.

2. Schedules are also frequently annexed to answers in a court of equity, and to depositions and other documents, in order to show more in detail the matter they contain, than could otherwise be conveniently shown.

3. The term is frequently used instead of inventory.

SCHOOLMASTER. One employed in teaching a school.

2. A schoolmaster stands in loco parentis in relation to the pupils committed to his charge, while they are under his care, so far as to enforce obedience to his, commands, lawfully given in his capacity of school-master, and he may therefore enforce them by moderate correction. Com. Dig. Pleader, 3 M 19; Hawk. c. 60, sect. 23. Vide Correction.

3. The schoolmaster is justly entitled to be paid for his important and arduous services by those who em ploy him. See 1 Bing. R. 357 8 Moore's Rep. 368. His duties are to teach his pupils what he has undertaken, and to have a special care over their morals. See 1 Stark. R. 421.

SCIENDUM, Eng. law. The name given to a clause inserted in the record by which it is made " known that the justice here in court, in this same term, delivered a writ thereupon to the deputy sheriff of the county aforesaid, to be executed in due form of law." Lee's Dict. art. Record.

SCIENTER, knowingly.

2. A man may do many acts which are justifiable or not, as he is ignorant or not ignorant of certain facts. He may pass a counterfeit coin, when he is ignorant of its being counterfeit, and is guilty of no offence; but if he knew the coin to be counterfeit, which is called the scienter, he is guilty of passing counterfeit money. A man who keeps an animal which injures some person, or his property, is answerable for damages, or in some cases he may be indicted if he had a knowledge of such animal's propensity to do injury. 3 Blackst. Comm. 154; 2 Stark. Ev. 178; 4 Campb. 198; 2 Str. 1264; 2 Esp. 482; Bull. N. P. 77; Burr. 2092; 2 Lev. 172; Lord Raym. 110; 2 B. & A. 620; 2 C. M. & R. 496; 5 C. & P. 1; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 187; 1 Leigh, N. P. 552, 553; 7 C. & P. 755.

4. In this respect the civil law agrees with our own. Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 2, t. 8, s. 2. As to what evidence maybe given to prove guilty knowledge, see Archb. Cr. Pl. 109. Vide Animal; Dog.

SCILICET. A Latin adverb, signifying that is to say; to wit; namely.

2. It is a clause to usher in the sentence of another, to particularize that which was too general before, distribute what was too gross, or to explain what was doubtful and obscure. It neither increases nor diminish the premises or habendum, for it gives nothing of itself; it may make a restriction when the preceding words may be restrained. Hob. 171 P. Wms. 18; Co. Litt. 180 b, note 1.

3. When the scilicet is repugnant to the precedent matter, it is void; for example, when a declaration in trover states that the plaintiff on the third day of May was possessed of certain goods which on the fourth day of May came to the defendant's hands, who afterwards, to wit, on the first day of May converted them, the scilicet was rejected as surplusage. Cro. Jac. 428; and vide 6 Binn. 15; 3 Saund. 291, note 1, and the cases there cited. This word is sometimes abbreviated, ss. or sst.

SCINTILLA JURIS, estates; A spark of right. A legal fiction, resorted to for the purpose of enabling feoffees to uses to support contingent uses when they come into existence, thereby to enable the statutes of uses, 27 Henry VIII., to execute them. 4 Kent's Com. 238, et seq., and the authorities there cited, for the learning upon this subject.

SCIRE FACIAS, remedies, practice. The name of a judicial writ, founded upon some record, and requiring the defendant to show cause why the plaintiff should not have the "advantage of such record; or, when it is issued to repeal letters-patent, why the record should not be annulled and vacated. 3 Sell. Pr. 187; Grah. Pr. 649; 2 Tidd's Pr. 982; 2 Arch. Pr. 76; Bac. Abr. h. t.

2. It is, however, considered as an action, and in the nature of a new original. Skin. 682; Com. 455.

3. The scire facias against a bail, against pledges in replevin, to repeal letters-patent, or the like, is an original proceeding; but when brought to revive a judgment after a year and a day, or upon the death or marriage of the parties, when in the latter case one of them is a woman; or when brought on a judgment quando, &c., against an executor, it is but a continuation of the original action. Vide 1 T. R. 388. Vide generally, 11 Vin. Ab. 1; 19 Vin. Ab. 280 Bac. Ab. Execution, H; Bac. Ab. h. t. 2 Saund. 72 e, note, 3; Doct. Pl. 436 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

SCIRE FACIAS AD AUDIENDUM ERRORES. The name of a writ which is sued out after the plaintiff in error has assigned his errors. F. N. B. 20; Bac. Ab. Error F.

SCIRE FACIAS AD DISPROBANDUM DEBTTUM. The name of a writ in use in Pennsylvania, which lies by a defendant in foreign attachment against the plaintiff, in order to enable him, within a year and a day next ensuing the time of payment to the plaintiff in the attachment, to disprove or avoid the debt recovered against him. Act relating to the commencement of actions, s. 61, passed June 13th, 1836.

SCIRE FECI, practice. The return of the sheriff, or other proper officer, to the writ of scire facias, when it has been served; scire feci, "I have made known."

SCIRE FIERI INQUIRY, Eng. law. The name of a writ, the history of the origin of which is as follows: when on an execution de bonis testatoris against an executor the sheriff returned nulla bona and also a devastavit, a fieri fac-ias, de bonis propriis, might formerly have been issued against the executor, without a previous inquisition finding a devastavit and a scire facias. But the most usual practice upon the sheriff's return of nulla bona a to a fieri facias de bonis testatoris, was to sue out a special writ of fieri facias de bonis testatoris, with a clause in it, "et si tibi constare, poterit," that the executor had wasted the goods, then to levy de bonis propriis. This was the practice in the king's bench till the time of Charles I.

2. In the common pleas a practice had prevailed in early times upon a suggestion in the special writ of fieri facias of a devastavit by the executor, to direct the sheriff to inquire by a jury, whether the executor had wasted the goods, and if the jury found he had, then a scire facias was issued out against him, and unless he made a good defence thereto, an execution de bonis propriis was awarded against him.

3. The practice of the two courts being different, several cases were brought into the king's bench on error, and at last it became the practice of both courts, for the sake of expedition, to incorporate the fieri facias inquiry, and scire facias, into one writ, thence called a scire fieri inquiry, a name compounded of the first words of the two writs of scire facias and fieri facias, and that of inquiry, of which it consists.

4. This writ recites the fieri facias de bonis testatoris sued out on the judgment against the executor, the return of nulla bona by the sheriff, and then suggesting that the executor bad sold and converted the goods of the testator to the value of the debt and damages recovered, commands the sheriff to levy the said debt and damages of the goods of the testator in the hands of the executor, if they could be but if it should appear to him by the inquisition of a jury that the executor had wasted the goods of the testator, then the sheriff is to warn the executor to appear, &c. If the judgment had been either by or against the testator or intestate, or both, the writ of fieri facias recites that fact, and also that the court had adjudged, upon a scire facias to revive the judgment, that the executor or administrator should have execution for the debt, &c. Clift's Entr. 659; Lilly's Entr. 664; 3 Rich. Pr. K. B. 523.

5. Although this practice is sometimes adopted, yet the most usual proceeding is by action of debt on the judgment, suggesting a devastavit, because in the proceeding by scire fieri inquiry the plaintiff is not entitled to costs, unless the executor appears and pleads to the scire facias. 1 Saund. 219, n. 8. See 2 Archb. Pr. 934.

SCITE. The setting or standing of may place. The seat or situation of a capital messuage, or the ground on which it Stood. Jacob, L. D. h. t.

SCOLD. A woman who by her habit of scolding becomes a nuisance to the neighborhood, is called a common scold. Vide Common Scold.

SCOT AND LOT, Eng. law. The name of a customary contribution, laid upon all the subjects according to their ability.

SCOUNDREL. An opprobrious title given to a person of bad character. General damages will not lie for calling a man a scoundrel, but special damages may be recovered when there has been an actual loss. 2 Bouv: Inst. n. 2250; 1 Chit. Pr. 44.

Copyright © 2004 New-York-Lawyer .WS