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TECHNICAL. That which properly belongs to an art.

2. In the construction of contracts, it is a general rule that technical words are to be taken according to their approved and known use in the trade in which the contract is entered into, or to which it relates, unless they have manifestly been understood in another sense by the parties. 2 B. & P. 164; 6 T. R. 320; 3 Stark. Ev. 1036, and the article Construction.

3. Words which do not of themselves denote that they are, used in a technical sense, are to have their plain, popular, obvious and natural meaning. 6 Watts & Serg. 114.

4. The law, like other professions, has a technical language. "When a mechanic speaks to me of the instruments aud operations of his trade,", says Mr. Wynne, Eunom. Dial. 2, s. 5, "I shall be as unlikely to comprehend him, as he would me in the language of my profession, though we both of us spoke English all the while. Is it wonderful then, if in systems of law, and especially among the hasty recruits of commentators, you meet (to use Lord Coke's expression) with a whole army of words that cannot defend themselves in a grammatical war? Technical language, in all cases, is formed from the most intimate knowledge of any art. One words stands for a great many, as it is. always to be resolved into many ideas by definitions. It is, therefore, unintelligible, because it is concise, and it is useful for the same reason." Vide Language.

TEINDS, Scotch Law. That liquid proportion of the rents or goods of the people, which is due to churchmen for performing divine service, or exercising the other spiritual functions proper to their several offices. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. B. 2, t. 10, s. 2. See Tithes.

TELLER. An officer in a bank or other institution. He is said to take that name from tallier, or one who kept a tally, because it is his duty to keep the accounts between the bank or other institution and its customers, or to make their accounts tally. In another sense teller signifies a person appointed to receive votes. In England the name of teller is given to certain officers in the exchequer.

TEMPORARY. That which is to last for a limited time; as, a temporary sta-tute, or one which is limited in its operation for a particular period of time after its enactment the opposite of perpetual.

TENANCY or TENANTCY. The state or condition of a tenant; the estate held by a tenant, as a tenant at will, a tenancy for years.

TENANT, estates. One who holds or possesses lands or tenements by any kind of title, either in fee, for life, for years, or at will. See 5 Mann. & Gr. 54; S. C. 44 Eng. C. L. Rep. 39; 5 Mann. & Gr. 112; Bouv. Inst. Index, h . t.

2. Tenants may be considered with regard to the estate to which they are en-titled. There are tenants in fee; tenants by the curtesy; tenants in dower; tenants in tail after. possibility of issue extinct; tenants for life tenants for years; tenants from year to year; tenants at Will; and tenants at suffrance. When considered with regard to their number, tenants are in severalty; tenants in common; and joint tenants. There is also a kind of tenant, called tenant to the praecipe. These will be separately examined.

3. Tenant in fee is he who has an estate of inheritance in the land. See Fee.

4. Tenant by the curtesy, is where a man marries a woman seised of an estate of inheritance, that is, of lands and tenements in fee simple or fee tail; and has by her issue born alive, which was capable of inheriting her estate. In this case he shall, on the death of his wife, hold the lands for life, as tenant by the curtesy. Co. Litt. 29, a; 2 Lilly's Reg. 656; 2 Bl. Com. 126. See Curtesy.

5. Tenant in dower is where the hushand of a woman is seised of an estate of inheritance, and dies; in this case, the wife shall have the third part of the lands and tenements of which he was seised at any time during the coverture, to hold to herself during the term of her natural life. 2 Bl. Com. 129; Com. Dig. Dower, A 1. See Dower.

6. Tenant in tail after possibility of issue extinct, is where one is tenant in special tail, and a person from whose body the issue was to spring, dies without issue; or having issue, becomes extinct; in these cases the survivor becomes tenant in tail after possibility of issue extinct. 2 Bl. Com. 124; and vide Estate tail after possibility of issue extinct.

7. Tenant for life, is he to whom lands or tenements are granted, or to which he derives by operation of law a title for the term of his own life, or for that of any other person, or for more lives than one.

8. He is called tenant for life, except when he bolds the estate by the life of another, when he is called tenant er autre vie. 2 Bl. Com. 84; Com. Dig. Estates, E 1; Bac. Ab. Estates, See Estate for life; 2 Lilly's Reg. 557.

9. Tenant for years, is he to whom another has let lands, tenements and hereditaments for a term of certain years, or for a lesser definite period of time, and the lessee enters thereon. 2, Bl. Com. 140; Com. Dig Estates by grant, G.

10. A tenant for years has incident to, and unseparable from his estate, unless by special agreement, the same estovers to which a tenant for life is entitled. See Estate for life. With regard to the crops or emblements, the tenant for years is not, in general, entitled to them after the expiration of his term. 2 Bl. Com. 144. But in Pennsylvania, the tenant is entitled to the way going crop. 2 Binn. 487; 5 Binn. 285, 289 2 S. & R. 14. See 5 B. & A. 768; this Diet. Distress; Estate for years; Lease; Lessee; Notice to quit.; Underlease.

11. Tenant from year to year, is he to whom another has let lands or tenements, without any certain or determinate estate; especially if an annual rent be reserved Com. Dig. Estates, R 1. And when a person is let into possession as a tenant, without any agreement as to time, the inference now is, that he is a tenant from year to year, until the contrary be proved; but, of course, such presumption may be rebutted. 3 Burr. 1609; 1 T. R. 163; 3 T. R. 16; 5 T. R. 471; 8 T. R. 3; 3 East 451. The difference between a tenant from year to year, and a tenant for years, is rather a distinction in words than in substance. Woodf., L. & J. 163.

12. Tenant at will, is when lands or tenements are let by one man to another, to have and th bold to him at the will of the lessor, by force of which the lessee is in possession. In this case the lessee is called tenant at will.

13. Every lease at will must be at the will of both parties. Co. Lit. 55; 2 Lilly's Reg. 555; 2 Bl. Com. 145., See Com. Dig. Estates, H 1; 12 Mass. 325; 1 Johns. Cas. 33; 2 Caines' C. Err. 314; 2 Caines' R. 169; 17 Mass. R. 282; 9 Johns. R. 331; 13 Johns. R. 235. Such a tenant may be ejected by the landlord at any time. 1 Watt's & Serg. 90.

14. Tenant at suffrance, is he who comes into possession by a lawful demise, and after his term is ended, continues the possession wrongfully, and holds over. Co. Lit. 57, b; 2 Leo. 46; 3 Leo. 153. See 1 Johns. Cas. 123; 5 Johns. R. 128; 4 Johns. R. 150; Id. 312.

15. Tenant in severalty, is he who holds land and tenements in his own right only, without any other person being joined or connected with him in point of interest, during his estate therein. 2 Bl. Com. 179.

16. Tenants in common, are such as hold by several and distinct titles, but by unity of possession. 2 Bl. Com. 161. See Estate in common; 7 Cruise, Dig. Ind. tit. Tenancy in Common; Bac. Abr. Joint-Tenants and Tenants in Common; Com. Dig. Abatement, E 10, F 6; Chancery, 3 V 4 Devise, N 8; Estates, K 8, K 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. vol. 1, 272, 315; 1 Vern. It. 353; Arch. Civ. Pl. 53, 73.

17. Tenants in common may have title as such to real or personal property; they may be tenants of a house, land, a horse, a ship, and the like.

18. Tenants in common are bound to account to each other; but they are bound to account only for the value of the property as it was when they entered, and not for any improvement or labor they put upon it, at their separate expense. 1 McMull. R. 298. Vide Estates in common; and 4 Kent, Com. 363. Joint tenants, are such as hold lands or tenements by joint tenancy. See Estate in joint tenany; 7 Cruise, Dig. Ind. tit. Joint Tenancy; Bac. Abr. Joint Tenants and Tenants in Common; Com. Dig. Estates, K 1; Chancery, 3 V 1; Devise, N 7, N 8; 2 Saund. Ind. Joint Tenants; Preston on Estates, 2 Bl. Com. 179.

19. Tenants to the praecipe, is be against whom the writ of praecipe is brought, in suing out a common recovery, and must be the tenant or seised of the freehold. 2 Bl. Com. 362.

TENANT OF THE DEMESNE, Eng. law. One who is tenant of a mesne lord; as where A is tenant of B, and C of A; B is the lord, A the mesne lord and C tenant of the demesne. Ham. N. P. 392, 393.

TENANT BY THE MANNER. One who has a less estate than a fee in land, which remains in the reversioner. He is so called because in avowries and other pleadings, it is specially shown in what manner, he is tenant of the land, in contradistinction to the veray tenant, who is called simply, tenant. Hamm. N. P. 393. See Veray.

TENANT PARAVAIL, English law. The tenant of a tenant; and is so called because he has the avails or profits of the land. Ham. N. P. 892, 393.

TENANT RIGHT, Eng. law. In leases from the crown, corporations or the church, it is usual to grant a further term to the old tenants in preference to strangers, and, as this expectation is seldom disappointed, such tenants are considered as baying an ulterior interest beyond their subsisting term; and this interest is called the tenant right. Bac. Ab. Leases and Terms for years, U.

TENDER, contracts, pleadings. A tender is an offer to do or perform an act which the party offering, is bound to perform to the party to whom the offer is made.

2. A tender may be of money or of specific articles; these will be separately considered. 1. Of the lender of money. To make la valid tender the following requisites are necessary: 1. It must be made by a person capable of paying: for if it be made by a stranger without the consent of the debtor, it will be insufficient. Cro. Eliz. 48, 132; 2 M. & S. 86; Co. Lit. 206.

3. - 2. It must be made to the creditor having capacity to receive it, or to his authorized agent. 1 Camp. 477; Dougl. 632; 5 Taunt. 307; S. C. 1 Marsh. 55; 6 Esp. 95; 3 T. R. 683; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 307; 1 Nev. & M. 398; S. C. 28 E. C. L. R. 324; 4 B. & C. 29 S. C. 10 E. C. L. R. 272; 3 C. & P. 453 S. C. 14 E. C. L. R. 386; 1 M. & W. 310; M. & M. 238; 1 Esp. R. 349 1 C. & P. 365

4. - 3. The whole sum due must be offered, in the lawful coin of the United States, or foreign coin made current by law; 2 N. & M. 519; and the offer must be unqualified by any circumstance whatever. 2 T. R. 305; 1 Campb. 131; 3 Campb. 70; 6 Taunt. 336; 3 Esp. C. 91; Stark. Ev. pt. 4, page 1392, n. g; 4 Campb. 156; 2 Campb. 21; 1 M. & W. 310. But a tender in bank notes, if not objected to on that account, will be good. 3 T. R. 554; 2 B. & P. 526; 1 Leigh's N. P. c. 1, S. 20; 9 Pick. 539; see 2 Caines, 116; 13 Mass. 235; 4 N. H. Rep. 296; 10 Wheat 333. But in such case, the amount tendered must be what is due exactly, for a tender of a five dollar note, demanding change, would not be a good tender of four dollars. 3 Campb. R. 70; 6 Taunt. R. 336; 2 Esp. R. 710; 2 D. & R. 305; S. C. 16 E. C. L. R. 87. And a tender was held good when made by a check contained in a letter, requesting a receipt in return which the plaintiff sent back demanding a larger sum, without objecting to the nature of the tender. 8 D. P. C. 442. When stock is to be tendered, everything must be done by the debtor to enable him to transfer it, but it is not absolutely requisite that it should be transferred. Str. 504, 533, 579 .

5. - 4. If a term had been stipulated in favor of a creditor, it must be expired; the offer should be made at the time agreed upon for the performance of the contract if made afterwards, it only goes in mitigation of damages, provided it be made before suit brought. 7 Taunt. 487; 8 East, R. 168; 5 Taunt. 240; 1 Saund. 33 a, note 2. The tender ought to be made before day-light is entirely gone. 7 Greenl. 31.

6. - 5. The condition on which the debt was contracted must be fulfilled.

7. - 6. The tender must be made at the place agreed upon for the payment, or, if there be no place appointed for that purpose, then to the creditor or his authorized agent. 8 John. 474; Lit. Sel. Cas. 132; Bac. Ab. h. t. c.

8. When a tender has been properly made, it is a complete defence to the action but the benefit of a tender is lost, if the creditor afterwards demand the thing due from the debtor, and the latter refuse to pay it. Kirby, 293.

9. - 2. Of the tender of specific articles. It is a rule that specific articles maybe tendered at some particular place, and not, like money, to the person of the creditor wherever found. When no place is expressly mentioned in the contract, the place of delivery is to be ascertained by the intent of the parties, to be collected from the nature of the case and its circumstances. If, for example, the contract is for delivery of goods from the seller to the buyer on demand, the former being the manufacturer of the goods or a dealer in them, no place being particularly named, the manufactory or store of the seller will be considered as the place intended, and a tender there will be sufficient. When the specific articles are at another place at the time of sale, that will be the place of delivery. 2 Greenl. Ev. 609 4 Wend. 377; 2 Applet. 325.

10. When the goods are cumbrous, and the place of delivery is not designated, nor to be inferred from the circumstances, it is presumed that it was intended that they should be delivered at any place which the creditor might reasonably appoint; if the creditor refuses, or names an unreasonable place, the debtor may select a proper place, and having given notice to the creditor, deliver the goods there. 2 Kent, Comm. 507; 1 Greenl. 120; Chip. on Contr. 51 13 Wend. 95; 2 Greenl. Ev. 610. Vide, generally, 20 Vin., Ab. 177; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Sell. 314; Com. Dig. Action upon the case upon Assumpsit, H 8-Condition, L 4 Pleader, 2 G 2-2 W, 28,49-3 K 23-3 M 36; Chipm, on Contr. 31, 74; Ayl. Pand. B. 4, t. 29; 7 Greenl. 31 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

TENEMENT, estates. In its most extensive signification tenement comprehends every thing which may be holden, provided it be of a permanent nature; and not only lands and inheritances which are holden, but also rents and profits a prendre of which a man has any frank tenement, and of which he may be seised ut de libero tenemento, are included under this term. Co. Litt. 6 a; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 219; Pork. s. 114; 2 Bl. Com. 17. But the word tenements simply, without other circumstances, has never been construed to pass a fee. 10 Wheat. 204. In its more confined and vulgar acceptation, it means a house or building. Ibid. an 1 Prest. on Est. 8. Vide 4 Bing. 293; S C. l1 Eng. C. L. Rep. 207; 1 T. R. 358; 3 T. R. 772; 3 East, R. 113; 5 East, R. 239; Burn's Just. Poor, 525 to 541; 1 B. & Adolph. 161; S. C. 20 Engl. C. L. Rep. 36 8; Com. Dig. Grant, E 2; Trespass, A 2; Wood's Inst. 120; Babington on Auctions, 211, 212.

TENENDAS, Scotch law. The name of a clause in charters of heritable rights which derives its name from its first words tenendus praedictas terras, and expresses the particular tenure by which the lands are to be holden. Ersk. Prin. B. 2, t. 3, n. 10.

TENENDUM, conveyancing. This is a Latin word, which signifies to hold.

2. It was formerly that part of a deed which was used to express the tenure by which the estate granted was holden; but since all freehold tenures were converted into socage, the tenendum is of no further use even in England, and is therefore joined to the habendum in this manner, "to have and to hold." The words "to hold" have now no meaning in our deeds. 2 Bl. Com. 298. Vide Habendum.

TENERI, contracts. That part of a bond where the obligor declares himself to be held and firmly bound to the obligee, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, is called the teneri. 3 Call, 350.

 
 
 
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