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URBAN. Relating to a city; but in a more general sense it signifies relating to houses.

2. It is used in this latter sense in the civil code of Louisiana, articles 706 and 707. All servitudes are established either for the use of houses or for the use of lands. Those of the first kind are called urban servitudes, whether the buildings to which they are due be situated in the city or in the country. Those of the second kind are called rural servitudes.

3. The principal kinds of urban servitudes are the following: the right of support; that of drip; that of drain, or of preventing the drain, that of view or of lights, or of preventing the view or lights from being obstructed: that of raising buildings or walls, or of preventing them from being raised that of passage and that of drawing water. Vide 3 Toull. p. 441; Poth. Introd. au tit. 13 de la Coutume d'Orleans, n. 2; Introd. Id. n. 2.

USAGE. Long and uniform practice. In its most extensive meaning this term includes custom and prescription, though it differs from them in a narrower sense, it is applied to the habits, modes, and course of dealing which are observed in trade generally, as to all mercantile transactions, or to some particular branches of trade.

2. Usage of trade does not require to be immemorial to establish it; if it be known, certain, uniform, reasonable, and not contrary to law, it is sufficient. But evidence of a few instances that such a thing has been done does not establish a usage. 3 Watts, 178; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 150; 1 Gallis. 443; 5 Binn. 287; 9 Pick. 426; 4 B. & Ald. 210; 7 Pet. 1; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 7.

3. The usages of trade afford ground upon which a proper construction may be given to contracts. By their aid the indeterminate intention of parties and the nature and extent of their contracts arising from mere implications or presumptions, and act of an equivocal character may be ascertained; and the meaning of words and doubtful expressions may become known. 2 Mete. 65; 2 Sumn. 569; 2 G. & J. 136; 13 Pick. 182; Story on Ag. 77; 2 Kent, Com. 662, 3d ed.; 5 Wheat. 326; 2 Car. & P. 525; 3 B. & Ald. 728; Park. on Ins. 30; 1 Marsh. Ins. 186, n. 20; 1 Caines, 45 Gilp. 356, 486; 1 Edw. Ch. R. 146; 1 N. & M. 519; 15 Mass. 433; 1 Rill, R. 270; Wright, R. 573; Pet. C. C. R. 230; 5 Hamm. 436 6 Pet. 715; 2 Pet. 148; 6 Porter, 123 1 Hall, 612; 9 Mass. 155; 9 Wheat. 582 11 Wheat. 430; 1 Pet. 25, 89.

4. Courts will not readily adopt these usages, because they are not unfrequently founded in mistake. 2 Sumn. 377. See 3 Chitt. Pr. 55; Story, Confl. of Laws, 270; 1 Dall. 178; Vaugh. 169, 383; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

USANCE, commercial law. The term usance comes from usage, and signifies the time which by usage or custom is allowed in certain countries, for the payment of a bill of exchange. Poth. Contr. du Change, n. 15.

2. The time of one, two or three mouths after the date of the bill, according to the custom of the places between which the exchanges run.

3. Double or treble is double or treble the usual time, and half usance is half the time. Where it is necessary to divide a month upon a half usance, which is the case when the usance is for one month or three, the division, notwithstanding the difference in the length of the months, contains fifteen days.

USE, estates. A confidence reposed in another, who was made tenant of the land or terre tenant, that he should dispose of the land according to the intention of the cestui que use, or him to whose use it was granted, and suffer him to take the profits. Plowd. 352; Gilb. on Uses, 1; Bac. Tr. 150, 306; Cornish on Uses, 1 3; 1 Fonb. Eq. 363; 2 Id. 7; Sanders on Uses, 2; Co. Litt. 272, b; 1 Co. 121; 2 Bl. Com. 328; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1885, et seq.

2. In order to create a use, there must always be a good Consideration; though, when once raised, it may be passed by grant to a stranger, without consideration. Doct. & Stu. , Dial. ch. 22, 23; Rob. Fr. Conv. 87, n.

3. Uses were borrowed from the fidei commissum (q. v.) of the civil law; it was the duty of a Roman magistrate, the praetor fidei commissarius, whom Bacon terms the particular chancellor for uses, to enforce the observance of this confidence. Inst. 2, 23, 2.

4. Uses were introduced into England by the ecclesiastics in the reign of Edward Ill or Richard II, for the purpose of avoiding the statutes of mortmain; and the clerical chancellors of those times held them to be fidei commissa, and binding in conscience. To obviate many inconveniencies and difficulties, which had arisen out of the doctrine and introduction of uses, the statute of 274 Henry VIII, c. 10, commonly called the statute of uses, or in conveyances and pleadings, the statute for transferring uses into possession, was passed. It enacts, that "when any person shall be seised of lands, &c., to the use, confidence or trust of any other person or body politic, the person or corporation entitled to the use in fee simple, fee tail, for life, or years, or otherwise, shall from thenceforth stand and be seised or possessed of the land, &c., of and in the like estate as they have in the use, trust or confidence; and that the estates of the persons so seised to the uses, shall be deemed to be in him or them that have the use, in such quality, manner, form and condition, as they had before in the use." The statute thus executes the use; that is, it conveys the possession to the use, and transfers the use to the possession; and, in this manner, making the cestui que use complete owner of the lands and tenements, as well at law as in equity. 2 Bl. Com. 333; 1 Saund. 254, note 6.

5. A modern use has been defined to be an estate of right, which is acquired through the operation of the statute of 27 Hen. VIII., c. 10; and which, when it may take effect according to the rules of the common law, is called the legal estate; and when it may not, is denominated a use, with a term descriptive of its modification. Cornish on Uses, 35.

6. The common law judges decided, in the construction of this statute, that a use could not be raised upon a use; Dyer, 155 A; and that on a feoffment to A and his heirs, to the use of B and his heirs, in trust for C and his heirs, the statute executed only the first use, and that the second was a mere nullity. The judges also held that, as the statute mentioned only such persons as were seised to the use of others, it did not extend to a term of years, or other chattel interests, of which a termor is not seised but only possessed. Bac. Tr. 336; Poph. 76; Dyer, 369; 2 Bl. Com. 336; The rigid literal construction of the statute by the courts of law again opened the doors of the chancery courts. 1 Madd. Ch. 448, 450.

USE, civil law. A right of receiving so much of the natural profits of a thing as is necessary to daily sustenance; it differs from usufruct, which is a right not only to use but to enjoy. 1 Browne's Civ. Law, 184; Lecons Elem. du Dr. Civ. Rom. 414, 416.

USE AND OCCUPATION. When a contract has been made, either by express or implied agreement, for the use of a house or other real estate, where there was no amount of rent fixed and ascertained, the landlord can recover a reasonable rent in an action of assumpsit for use and occupation. 1 Munf. R. 407; 2 Aik. R. 252; 7 J. J. Marsh. 6; 4 Day, R. 228; 13 John. R. 240; 13 John. R. 297; 4 H. & M. 161; 15 Mass. R. 270; 2 Whart. R. 42; 10 S. & R. 251.

2. The action for use and occupation is founded not on a privity of estate, but on a privity of contract; 3 S. & R. 500; C. & N. 19; therefore it will not lie where the possession is tortious. 2 N. & M. 156; 3 S. & R. 500; 6 N. H. Rep. 298; 6 Ham. R. 371; 14 Mass. R. 95. See Arch. L. & T. 148.

USEFUL. That which may be put into beneficial practice.

2. The patent act of congress of July 4, 1836, sect. 6, in describing the subjects of patents, mentions "new and useful art," and "new and useful improvement." To entitle the inventor to a patent, his invention must, to a certain extent, be beneficial to the community, and not be for an unlawful object, or frivolous, or insignificant. 1 Mason, 182; 1 Pet. C. C. R. 322; 1 Bald. 303; 14 Pick. 217; Paine, 203.

USHER. This word is said to be derived from a huissier, and is the name of an inferior officer in some English courts of law Archb. Pr. 25.

USUCAPTION, civil law. The manner of acquiring property in things by the lapse of time required by law.

2. It differs from prescription, which has the same sense, and means, in addition, the manner of acquiring and losing, by the effect of time regulated by law, all sorts of rights and actions. Merl. Repert. mot Prescription, tom. xii. page 671; Ayl. Pand. 320; Wood's Inst. Civ. Law, 165; Lecons Elem. du Dr. Rom. 437; 1 Browne's Civ. Law, 264, n.; vattel, ii. 2, c. 2, 140.

USUFRUCT, civil law. The right of enjoying a thing, the property of which is vested in another, and to draw from the same all the profit, utility and advantage which it may produce, provided it be without altering the substance of the thing.

2. The obligation of not altering the substance of the thing, however, takes place only in the case of a complete usufruct.

3. Usufructs are of two kinds; perfect and imperfect. Perfect usufruct, which is of things which the usufructuary can enjoy without altering their substance, though their substance may be diminished or deteriorated naturally by time or by the use to which they are applied; as a house, a piece of land, animals, furniture and other movable effects. Imperfect or quasi usufruct, which is of things which would be useless to the usufructuary if be did not consume and expend them, or change the substance of them, as money, grain, liquors. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 525, et seq.; 1 Browne's Civ. Law, 184; Poth. Tr. du Douaire, n. 194; Ayl. Pand. 319; Poth. Pand. tom. 6, p. 91; Lecons El. du Dr. Civ. Rom. 414 Inst. lib. 2, t. 4; Dig. lib. 7, t. 1, 1. 1 Code, lib. 3, t. 33; 1 Bouv. Inst. Theolo. ps. 1, c. 1, art. 2, p. 76.

USUFRUCTUARY, civil law. One who has the right and enjoyment of an usufruct.

2. Domat, with his usual clearness, points out the duties of the usufructuary, which are, 1. To make an inventory of the things subject to the usu-fruct, in the presence of those having an interest in them. 2. To give secur-ity for their restitution; when the usufruct shall be at an end. 3. To take good care of the things subject to the usufruct. 4. To pay all taxes, and claims which arise while the thing is in his possession, as a ground-rent. 5. To keep the thing in repair at his own expense. Lois Civ. liv. 1, t. 11, s. 4. See Estate for life.

USURPATION, torts. The unlawful assumption of the use of property which belongs to another; an interruption or the disturbing a man in his right and possession. Toml. Law Dict. h. t.

2. According to Lord Coke, there are two kinds of usurpation. 1. When a stranger, without right, presents to a church, and his clerk is admitted; and, 2. When a subject uses a franchise of the king without lawful authority. Co. Litt. 277 b.

USURPATION, government. The tyrannical assumption of the government by force contrary to and in violation of the constitution of the country.

USURPED POWER, insurance. By an article of the printed proposals which are considered as making a part of the contract of insurance it is provided, that "No loss of damage by fire, happening by any invasion, foreign enemy, or any military or usurped power whatsoever will be made good by this company." Lord Chief J. Wilmot, Mr. Justice Clive, and Mr. Justice Bathurst, against the opinion of Mr. Justice Gould, determined that the true import of the words usurped power in the proviso, was an invasion, from abroad, or an internal rebellion, where armies are drawn up against each other, when the laws are silent, and when the firing of towns becomes unavoidable; but that those words could not mean the power of a common mob. 2 Marsh. Ins. 390.

USURPER, government. One who assumes the right of government by force, contrary to and in violation of the constitution of the country. Toull. Dr. Civ. n. 32. Vide Tyranny,

USURY, contracts. The illegal profit which is required and received by the lender of a sum of money from the borrower for its use. In a more extended and improper sense, it is the receipt of any profit whatever for the use of money: it is only in the first of these senses that usury will be here considered.

2. To constitute a usurious contract the following are the requisites: 1. A loan express or implied. 2. An agreement that the money lent shall be returned at all events. 3. Not only that the money lent shall be returned, but that for such loan a greater interest than that fixed by law shall be paid.

3. - 1. There must be a loan in contemplation of the parties; 7 Pet. S. C. Rep. 109, 1 Clarke R. 252; and if there be a loan, however disguised, the contract will be usurious, if it be so in other respects. Where a loan was made of depreciated bank notes to be repaid in sound funds, to enable the borrower to pay a debt he owed dollar for dollar, it was considered as not being usur-ious. 1 Meigs, R. 585. The bona fide sale of a note, bond or other security at a greater discount than would amount to legal interest, is not per se, a loan, although the note may be endorsed by the seller, and he remains responsible. 9 Pet. S. C. Rep. 103; 1 Clarke, R. 30. But, if a note, bond; or other security be made with a view to evade the laws of usury, and afterwards sold for a less amount than the interest, the transaction will be considered a loan; 2 Johns. Cas. 60; 3 Johns. Cas. 66; 15 Johns. R. 44 2 Dall. 92; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 46 and a sale of a man's own note, endorsed by himself, will, be considered a loan. lt is a general rule that a contract, which, in its inception, is unaffected by usury, can never be invalidated by any subsequent usurious transaction. 7 Pet. S. C. Rep. 109. On the contrary, when the contract was originally usurious, and there is a substitution by a new contract, the latter will generally be considered usurious. 15 Mass. R. 96.

4. - 2. There must be a contract for the return of the money at all events; for if the return of the principal with interest, or of the principal only, depend upon a contingency, there can be no usury; but if the contingency extend only to interest, and the principal be beyond the reach of hazard, the lender will be guilty of usury, if he received interest beyond the amount allowed by law. As the principal is put to hazard in insurances, annuities and bottomry, the parties may charge and receive greater interest than is allowed by law in common cases, and the transaction will not be usurious.

5. - 3. To constitute usury the borrower must not only be obliged to return the principal at all events, but more than lawful interest: this part of the agreement must be made with full consent and knowledge of the contracting parties. 3 Bos. & Pull, 154. When the contract is made in a foreign country the rate of interest allowed by the laws of that country may be charged, and it will not be usurious, although greater than the amount fixed by law in this. Story, Confl. of Laws, 292. Vide, generally, Com. Dig. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 8 Com. Dig. h. t.; Lilly's Reg. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Petersdorff's Ab. h. t.; Vin. Ab. h. t.; 2 Bl. Com. 454; Comyn on Usury, passim; 1 Pt. S. C Rep. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Yes. jr. 307, 337; Yelv. 47; 1 Ves. jr. 527; 1 Saund 295, note 1; Poth. h. t.; and the article Anatocism; Interest.

UTERINE BROTHER, domestic relations. A brother by the mother's side.

UTI POSSIDETIS. This phrase, which means as you possess, is used in international law to signify that the parties to a treaty are to retain possession of what they have acquired by force during the war.

TO UTTER, crim. law. To offer, to publish.

2. To utter and publish a counterfeit note is to assert and declare, directly or indirectly, by words or actions, that the note offered is good. It is not necessary that it should be passed in order to complete the offence of uttering. 2. Binn. R. 338, 9. It seems that reading out a document, although the party refuses to show it, is a sufficient uttering. Jebb's Ir. Cr. Cas. 282. Vide East, P. C. 179; Leach, 251; 2 Stark. Ev. 378 1 Moody, C. C. 166; 2 East, P. C. 974 Russ. & Ry. 113; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Roscoe's Cr. Ev. 301. The merely showing a false instrument with intent to gain a credit when there was no intention or attempt made to pass it, it seems would not amount to an uttering. Russ. & Ry. 200. Vide Ringing the charge.

UTTER BARRISTER, English law, Those barristers who plead without the bar, and are distinguished from benchers, or those who have been readers and who are allowed to plead within the bar, as the king's counsel are. The same as ouster barrister. See Barrister. civil law. A woman lawfully married.

 
 
 
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